The Pattern of Latin American Dependence

  • Osvaldo Sunkel
Part of the International Economic Association Series book series (IEA)


Much has been written on Latin America’s dependence upon trade, aid, private foreign investment and technological transfers. The structure and trends of foreign trade, the evolution of the terms of trade, commercial policy, the volume, costs and conditions of aid, the amounts, benefits and disadvantages of foreign investment, the obstacles, costs and nature of the transfer of technology: all these are topics that have been subject to extensive empirical and theoretical analysis. Nevertheless, most of the research done has usually concentrated on the independent and separate examination of each of these elements of the economic and financial relations of Latin America with the industrialised countries. This has been both necessary and useful, but it tends to overshadow two very important aspects of the question: first, that there are significant direct relationships among trade, aid, foreign investment and technological transfers, and second, that these variables and their interrelationships are part of a wider system of international economic and political relations.


Foreign Firm Multinational Corporation Underdeveloped Country Foreign Subsidiary Economic Dependence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    W. H. McNeill, The Rise of the West (Mentor, New York, 1965), pp. 713–14.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. B. Clough, The Economic Development of Western Civilization (McGraw-Hill, New York), 1959, p. 224.Google Scholar
  3. 1.
    J. M. Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London, 1920), p. 9Google Scholar
  4. 1.
    J. M. Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London, 1920), pp. 19–21.Google Scholar
  5. 1.
    Raymond Vernon, Report of the Research Project on the Multinational Corporation (Harvard Business School, 1970).Google Scholar
  6. 1.
    Galbraith, John Kenneth, The New Industrial State (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1967). (Emphasis added.)Google Scholar
  7. 1.
    A. Barber, ‘Emerging New Power. The World Corporation’, War/Peace Report (October, 1968), p. 7.Google Scholar
  8. 1.
    Harry G. Johnson, ‘The Multi-National Corporation as an Agency of Economic Development: Some Exploratory Observations’, in Barbara Ward, Lenore d’Anjou and J. D. Runnals, The Widening Gap: Development in the 1970’s (Columbia University Press, 1971), pp. 244 and 246.Google Scholar
  9. 2.
    Albert O. Hirschman, ‘How to Divest in Latin America, and Why’, Essays in International Finance, No. 76 (Princeton University, November 1969).Google Scholar
  10. 1.
    Celso Furtado, ‘La concentraciOn del poder econbmico en los EE.UU. y sus proyecciones en América Latina’, Estudios Internacionales, Año I, No. 3/4 (Santiago, 1968).Google Scholar
  11. 1.
    Fernando Fajnzylber, Sistema Industrial y Exportacidn de Manufacturas, Analisis de la Experiencia Brasilena, ECLA, Nov. 1970 (study done for the Brazilian Ministry of Planning and General Co-ordination).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Economic Association 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Osvaldo Sunkel
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ChileChile

Personalised recommendations