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Education in Tsarist and Soviet Development

  • Michael Kaser

Abstract

In their A.B.C. of Communism, Bukharin and Preobrazhensky observed that ‘the transference of power to the proletariat was immediately followed by a nearly tenfold increase in the expenditure upon popular education’.1 They cited, as reliable statisticians, state outlay in Russia as 340 million roubles in 1917 and 2,914 million in 1918; as misleading economists, they failed to deflate current outlays by any index of prices, which rose half as fast, but even so real outlay must have doubled.2 Such an expansion — sufficient for any propogandist — is borne out by the education share of the budget, which rose from 1.2 per cent in 1917 to 6.4 per cent in 1918.3

Keywords

Market Economy Enrolment Ratio October Revolution Union Republic Professional Employment 
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Notes

  1. 3.
    Appendix I (by R. W. Davies) to S. Fitzpatrick, The Commissariat of Enlightenment: Soviet Organisation of Education and the Arts under Lunacharsky (Cambridge, 1971) p. 291.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    For a fuller discussion, see M. Shore, Soviet Education: Its Psychology and Philosophy (New York, 1947) chaps 3 and 4, from which the quotations above are taken.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    Framed for the U.S.S.R. by J. S. Berliner, ‘Managerial Incentives and Decision-Making’, in Comparisons of the United States and Soviet Economies (Washington, D.C., 1959) p. 351.Google Scholar
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  5. and R. Hutchings, Soviet Economic Development (Oxford, 1971) p. 102.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Quoted by L. Alston, Education and the State in Tsarist Russia (Stanford, 1969) p. 4.Google Scholar
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    e.g., M. Kaser, ‘Needs and Resources for Social Investment’, International Social Science Journal, no. 3 (1960) pp. 400–33.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    See particularly M. Blaug, An Introduction to the Economics of Education (London, 1970) chap. 6, and J. Vaizey (with K. Norris and J. Sheehan) The Political Economy of Education (London, 1972) chaps 5, 6.Google Scholar
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  12. 22.
    W. L. Blackwell, The Beginnings of Russian Industrialisation (Princeton, 1968) p. 18.Google Scholar
  13. 23.
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  15. 38.
    N. Timasheff, The Great Retreat (New York, 1964) p. 34.Google Scholar
  16. cited by T. Shanin, The Awkward Class (Oxford, 1972) p. 10.Google Scholar
  17. 39.
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  18. 41.
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  21. 47.
    Quoted in H. H. Willis, Sovietised Education (New York, 1965), p. 8.Google Scholar
  22. 49.
    See R. V. Rapacz, ‘Polytechnical Education and the New Soviet School Reforms’, in G. F. Bereday and J. Pennar (eds), The Politics of Soviet Education (New York, 1960) p. 32.Google Scholar
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    L. A. Komarov, Planirovanie podgotovki i raspredeleniya spetsialistov v SSSR (Moscow, 1961), quoted by H. C. Rudman, The School and State in the U.S.S.R. (New York, 1967) p. 42.Google Scholar
  24. 51.
    J. J. Schwartz and W. R. Keech, ‘Group Influence and the Policy Process in the Soviet Union’, in F. J. Fleron, Jr (ed.), Communist Studies and the Social Sciences (Chicago, 1969) p. 300.Google Scholar
  25. 57.
    U. Bronfenbrenner, Two Worlds of Childhood: U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. (London, 1972).Google Scholar
  26. See also especially N. Grant, Soviet Education (London, 1964) chap. 3.Google Scholar
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    N. Hans, History of Russian Educational Policy (London, 1931).Google Scholar
  29. 59.
    E. F. Denison, The Sources of Economic Growth in the United States and the Alternatives before Us (New York, 1962) pp. 69–70.Google Scholar
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    M. Blaug, ‘The Correlation between Education and Earnings’, Higher Education, I 1 (1972) 53–70, and An Introduction to the Economics of Education pp. 32–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 61.
    The data are from Kaser, ‘Education and Economic Progress: Experience in Industrialised Market Economies’, in E. A. G. Robinson and J. Vaizey (eds), The Economics of Education (London, 1966) Table 13, pp. 110–15, supplemented for Italy in the nineteenth century by compilations of Vera Zamagni (doctoral student, St Antony’s College, Oxford).Google Scholar
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    R. Goldsmith, ‘The Economic Growth of Tsarist Russia, 1860–1913’, Economic Development and Cultural Change (April 1961) pp. 441–75; Maddison, Economic Growth in Japan and the U.S.S.R. p. 155, shows 2.5 per cent for 1870–1913, faster than seven of the fourteen countries for which he gives corresponding data.Google Scholar

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© Michael Kaser 1974

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  • Michael Kaser

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