The industrial revolution of the nineteenth century profoundly changed the structure of society and transformed the pattern of settlement in the now-developed countries. Men were drawn from the land, the villages and the country towns and concentrated in the new industrial cities which sprang up near the sources of energy and raw materials. These cities grew rapidly, because of the growing scale of industry and the tendency for related industries to develop close to one another, without regard for the environment. Although many industries are now less tied to local sources of energy and raw materials, and planning policies have secured a wider distribution of industrial plant, many of the early industrial cities have continued to grow into densely populated conurbations, often with a chaotic mixture of factories and tenements, waste tips and remnants of agricultural land. Industrialisation has brought with it economic expansion and rising standards of living, increased consumption of goods and services and increased environmental pollution.
KeywordsHuman Settlement Environmental Challenge Physical Planning Building Industry Building Site
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