• Edwin Mansfield
  • John Rapoport
  • Jerome Schnee
  • Samuel Wagner
  • Michael Hamburger


In this chapter, we bring together many of our results and discuss their implications for model-builders and policy-makers. As indicated below, these results have implications for economists interested in modeling the process of technological change, for economists and lawyers interested in formulating and carrying out public policy toward the giant corporation, for scientists and social scientists interested in various aspects of public policy-making concerning science and technology, and for managers, industrial scientists, and operations researchers interested in helping firms to utilize science and technology more effectively.


Small Firm Large Firm Technical Success Product Innovation Development Cost 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. 1.
    For example, see B. Klein, “The Decision Making Problem in Development,” in The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity (National Bureau of Economic Research, 1962)Google Scholar
  2. Merton Peck and F. M. Scherer, The Weapons Acquisition Process (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962).Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    J. Jewkes, D. Sawers, and R. Stillerman, The Sources of Invention, revised edition (New York: W. W. Norton, 1970).Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    Richard Nelson, Merton Peck, and Edward Kalachek, Technology, Economic Growth, and Public Policy (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1967).Google Scholar
  5. Edwin Mansfield, The Economics of Technological Change (New York: W. W. Norton, 1968).Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    For some examples of this lack of coordination in other firms, see A. Gerstenfeld, Effective Management of Research and Development (Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1970).Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    Edwin Mansfield, Industrial Research and Technological Innovation (New York: W. W. Norton for the Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics at Yale University, 1968).Google Scholar
  8. 13.
    Robert Seiler, Improving the Effectiveness of Research and Development (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965).Google Scholar
  9. 21.
    E. Roberts, “Questioning the Cost-Effectiveness of the R and D Procurement Process,” in Research Program Effectiveness, ed. by M. Yovits, D. Gilford, R. Wilcox, E. Staveley, and H. Lerner (New York: Gordon and Breach, 1966.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edwin Mansfield
    • 1
  • John Rapoport
    • 2
  • Jerome Schnee
    • 3
  • Samuel Wagner
    • 4
  • Michael Hamburger
    • 5
  1. 1.Wharton SchoolUniversity of PennsylvaniaUSA
  2. 2.Mount Holyoke CollegeUSA
  3. 3.Columbia UniversityUSA
  4. 4.Temple UniversityUSA
  5. 5.Federal Reserve Bank of New YorkUSA

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