Travels April–December 1943

  • Michael Balfour
  • Julian Frisby


This was how Helmuth was already writing to M.B. from Stockholm in March 1943 and thereafter the journeys multiplied.* The next, in late April and early May, was to Vienna whence he travelled via Warsaw to Pulawy in Poland where Fritz Christiansen-Weniger was supervising 240 Polish scientists, in a big Polish agricultural institute. On the way to Warsaw Helmuth stopped in Cracow and had an interview (arranged but not attended by Christiansen-Weniger) with Archbishop Adam Sapieha.† The SS had developed the practice of surrounding villages by night and seizing the male inhabitants as a reprisal against acts of the Polish Resistance; those who were not shot on the spot were taken to work in Germany. Helmuth wanted to devise a system for warning villages in advance and had hoped that Christiansen-Weniger himself could undertake this. He, however, felt that he was too conspicuous and too much under suspicion already for treating Poles as human beings (a warrant for his arrest was issued in July 1944 but could not be executed as the SS had fled in face of the Russian advance). Helmuth therefore decided to see whether anything could be arranged through the Cardinal. What passed between them or what resulted is not known, except that Helmuth on arrival at Pulawy told Christiansen-Weniger that he was fully satisfied with the result.1


Staff Officer Hague Convention Ally Side Nazi Party Turkish Government 


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  1. 2.
    W. Ritter von Schramm, Der 20 7uli in Paris (1953), p. 28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Michael Balfour and Julian Frisby 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Balfour
    • 1
  • Julian Frisby
  1. 1.University of East AngliaUK

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