Advertisement

The High Commission Territories, II: The Failure of Hertzog, 1924–27

  • Ronald Hyam

Abstract

General J. B. M. Hertzog was prime minister and minister of Native Affairs from 1924 to 1929 in a Pact Government which joined his National Party with the Labour Party. Unlike his predecessors Botha and Smuts, Hertzog enjoyed no sort of admiration in London. British politicians deeply appreciated Botha, who was in many ways a sort of Sir Edward Grey on horseback, with all his ‘old world courtesy’, chivalry and common sense, honesty, practical straightforwardness, strength, simplicity, sense of duty and of spiritual values. They also had the greatest respect for Smuts on account of his Cambridge-educated intelligence, his philosophy, his international stature and his constructive contributions to the Commonwealth. By contrast Hertzog seemed dissident, headstrong, obstinate, petulant, blunt, intransigent, and in some ways petty.1 In Fabian circles he was spoken of as a ‘hysterical dunderhead’.2 The enmity between Hertzog and smooth, subtle Smuts was legendary, and did not help to endear the former to the British. His politics were thought to have proceeded from personal hatred of Botha. As long ago as 1910 his inclusion in the first Union ministry had been lamented in the Colonial Office.3

Keywords

British Government High Commissioner National Party White Supremacy High Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Buxton, General Botha, 124–5; Mildred Buxton: a memoir, 124.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sydney Olivier: letters & selected writings (ed. M. Olivier, 1948) 164.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    CO. 417/488/19648.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reitz, No Outspan, 145.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reitz, 135.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. E. Sara, The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Athlone (1941) 176, 188–206; 217; Heaton Nicholls, South Africa in my time, 173–91.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    CO. 417/707/3310 & 714/22776.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    O. Pirow, James Barry Munnik Hertzog (Cape Town, n.d.) 203–4.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    DO. 35/4/6093; I. Edwards, Protectorates or Native Reserves? (Africa Bureau pamphlet [1956]) is very helpful on the constitutional aspects of the Territories’ problem.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    CO. 417/709/54256, H/C Athlone to S/S 29 Oct 24 (DO. 116/1/25 and Cmd. 8707 — Basutoland, the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland: history of discussions with the Union of South Africa 1909–39. Correspondence, extracts from parliamentary reports and otherdocuments, H.M.S.O. 1952 [Accounts and Papers, vol. XXIII] p. 15).Google Scholar
  11. CO. 417/709/55124, Athlone to S/S 7 Nov 24 (DO. 116/1/33–4).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    CO. 417/709/58648, S/S Amery to H/C 57 Dec 24.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    CO. 417/705/60080, H/C to S/S 22 Dec 24.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    CO. 417/709/55124, to S/S 7 Nov 24.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ibid. 54256 (DO. 116/1/31).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    CO. 417/713/5351, H/C to S/S tel. 3 Feb 25 (DO. 116/1/44).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    CO. 457/705/60080, S/S to H/C tel. 19 Jan 25.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    CO. 417/713/8828, H/C to S/S 6 Feb 25 & 714/39794.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    CO. 417/709/55124, minute by Tait I Dec 24; see also 713/17129.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    CO. 417/709/58648, minute 17 Dec 24.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    CO. 417/714/39794, S/S to H/C 4 Dec 25.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    DO. 9/1/D. 3716, H/C to S/S 18 Mar 26.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    DO. 9/1/D. 8682 (DO. 116/1/100) 4 Aug 26.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    DO. 9/2/D. 8885, Hertzog to H/C 6 Apr 26 (DO. 116/1/105 & Cmd. 8707/1820).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    DO. 116/1/109–13 & Cmd. 8707/29–36, H/C to Hertzog 14 Jul 26.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    DO. 116/1/114–15.j, H/C Athlone to Hertzog 20 Ju1 26.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    DO. 9/2/D. 9120, H/C to S/S 30 Jul 26.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ibid. Hertzog to H/C 13 Aug 26 (DO. 116/1/119) & 14 Sep, DO. 9/3/D.10476.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    DO. 9/3/D. 11020, H/C to S/S I Oct 26 & D. 11543, H/C to S/S 15 Oct 26.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    DO. 9/1/D. 3716, minute 14 Apr 26.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    DO. 9/3/D. 10742, Clifford to C. T. Davis (DO.) 25 Sept 26.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    DO. 9/3/D. 11543, S/S to H/C 18 Feb 27 & DO. 9/4/D. 1829, minute by Davis 9 Feb 26.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    DO. 9/6/D. 5772.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    DO. 9/1/D. 3717 & DO. 9/4/D. 2508, letters from Clifford to Davis 18 & 26 Mar 26.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    DO. 9/8/D. 8984, S/S Amery to Davis 15 Aug 27 (from Salisbury, Rhodesia).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    L. S. Amery, My Political Life, II, 1914–29 (1953) 415.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cmd. 8707/36–8, note by Amery on his discussion with Hertzog 6 Sep 27.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    DO. 9/8/D.10967, C. G. Whiskard (DO.), notes on Amery’s meeting with Hertzog 6 Sep 27.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    DO. 9/8/D. 10918, Amery to prime minister S. Baldwin 24 Sep 27 (copy, extract) & DO. 35/901/Y.6/51, quoting Amery to H/C 16 Nov 26.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    DO. 9/8/D. 10918.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    DO. 9/8/D. 10867, memo 5 Oct 27.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
    DO. 9/7/D. 10867 & 10443.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    DO. 9/7/D. 10443, Amery to Billy [W. A. Edgecumbe, his private secretary] 24 Sep 27 (from Cape Town).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    DO. 9/8/D. 10918 & D. 10867, Amery to Davis 24 Sep 27 & to prime minister 4 Oct. 27Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    DO. 9/12/D. 3818, minute by Amery 18 Apr 28 & Churchill to Amery 3 May 28; see also D. 1925.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    T. Jones, Whitehall Diary (ed. K. Middlemas), ii, 1926–30 (1969) 171, 180.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    DO. 9/10/D. 6068 & 12/D. 506, Amery to Sir A. Bailey 24 Sep 27.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    DO. 9/12/D. 10967, minute of 6 Nov 28.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    DO. 9/6/D. 7528 & 14/D. 1827, note by Amery 11 Feb 29.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    DO. 117/120 (i.e. 11244/1928 Secret), minute by Tait 24 Jan 29.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    DO. 9/15/D. 11562 S/S to H/C tel. 28 Sep 29.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    DO. 116/5/10991/19, DO. memo Jul 1932, p. 3.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hofmeyr, South Africa, 196.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. A. I. Agar-Hamilton ‘The South African Protectorates’ (Journal of the African Society, xxix (1929) 26.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ronald Hyam 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald Hyam

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations