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Economic and Social Progress

  • A. Jeyaratnam Wilson

Abstract

Sri Lanka’s economic dilemma lies in that she has to cope with the problem of a rising population. It is made more difficult by the fact that at the disposal of this population has been placed a whole range of welfare services, unequalled in Asia, which the country’s resources can ill-afford to sustain. The political consequences of tampering with these services are so explosive that most governments have desisted from resorting to such measures.

Keywords

Private Sector Public Sector Prime Minister Foreign Exchange Commercial Bank 
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Notes

  1. 2.
    See National Planning Council, The Ten-Year Plan (Colombo, 1959), p. 19, Table V (Workforce Projections, 1956–81).Google Scholar
  2. For further information see Central Bank of Ceylon, Survey of Ceylon’s Consumer Finances, 1963 (Colombo, 1964), ‘Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Under-Employment in Ceylon 1959–60’, International Labour Review (March 1963), Report to the Government of Ceylon on Rural Employment Problems (ILO: Geneva, 1965),Google Scholar
  3. R. K. Srivastava, S. Selvaratnam and V. Ambalavanar, Unemploymen in Ceylon — A Possible Line of Action, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs (November 1967)Google Scholar
  4. and R. K. Srivastava, S. Selvaratnam and A. T. P. L. Abeykoon, Ceylon Labour Force Projections 1968–78, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs (October 1968).Google Scholar
  5. For a recent retailed analysis refer to International Labour Office, The Report of an Inter-Agency Team, Matching Employment Opportunities and Expectations: A Programme of Action for Ceylon (Geneva, 1971),Google Scholar
  6. International Labour Office, The Technical Papers of an Inter-Agency Team, Matching Employment Opportunities and Expectations: A Programme of Action for Ceylon (Geneva, 1971)Google Scholar
  7. and Birge Möller, Employment Approaches to Economic Planning in Developing Countries with Special Reference to the Development Planning of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series No. 9: Stockholm, 1972).Google Scholar
  8. 12.
    Report of the Planning Committee on Education, Health, Housing and Manpower (Colombo, May 1967), p. 40. Note, health services in general put up per capita expenditure on health from Rs 15.40 in 1960–1 to Rs 16.00 in 1967–8; see Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, Economic Development 1966–68: Review and Trends (Colombo, August 1967), p. 69.Google Scholar
  9. 17.
    The Department of National Planning, The Short-Term Implementation Programme (Colombo, 1962), p. 278.Google Scholar
  10. 20.
    The Department of National Planning, The Development Programme 1964–1965 (Colombo, 1964), p. 49.Google Scholar
  11. 22.
    See Report of I.B.R.D. team headed by Manfred G. Blobel HUYEN in Ceylon Daily News, 11 May 1971.Google Scholar
  12. 34.
    See L. De Silva, ‘A Critical Evaluation of Agricultral Policy 1960–68’, p. 97 in Staff Studies, Central Bank of Ceylon, Vol. 1, No. 1 (April 1971). Note, a survey carried out by the Investigation Unit of the Water Resources Board reported that paddy lands ‘are owned by peasants in several isloated parcels, varying in sizes, located not at one place but at several different places under the same scheme’ and it recorded an instance where 2,176 ½ acres were owned and occupied by 815 owners in 3,641 different parcels, and of this, more than one-third (750 acres) remained uncultivated.Google Scholar
  13. See I. Collonege, ‘Land Fragmentation: A Solution’, in Ceylon Daily News, 11 April 1971.Google Scholar
  14. See also G. Obeyesekere, Land Tenure in Village Ceylon (Cambridge, 1967) for an account of the joint ownership of land prevalent in southern Sri Lanka.Google Scholar
  15. 37.
    See D. S. Senanayake, Agriculture and Patriotism (Colombo; Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Limited, 1935). C. P. de Silva made the remarks referred to in conversations with politicians and civil servants.Google Scholar
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    Planning Secretariat, Six Year Programme of Investment 1954/55–1959/ 1960 (Colombo, 1955), pp. 240–1.Google Scholar
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  18. 51.
    The Department of National Planning, The Development Programme 1964–1965 (Colombo, 1964), p. 46.Google Scholar
  19. 53.
    N. S. Karunatilake, ‘Recent Developments in the Economy and their Impact on Ceylon’s Industrialisation’, in Industrial Development Board, Research and Industry (Colombo, 1970), p. 37.Google Scholar
  20. 56.
    Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, Government Policy on Private Foreign Investment (Colombo, 1966).Google Scholar
  21. 60.
    See N. M. Perera, Budget Speech 1970–71, p. 35. Also, N. M. Perera, The Economy of Ceylon: Trends and Prospects (Government of Ceylon, November 1971) (mimeographed), pp. 23–33.Google Scholar
  22. 62.
    See I.B.R.D., Report of the Prospects for Tourist Development in Ceylon (Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs; Colombo, March 1968) and Central Bank of Ceylon, Annual Report for the Year 1970, p. 199.Google Scholar
  23. 64.
    T. B. Ilangaratna, Economic and Social Progress 1956–62 (Supplement to the Budget Speech 1963) (Colombo, 1963), p. 57.Google Scholar
  24. 70.
    Donald R. Snodgrass, Ceylon: An Export Economy in Transition (Illinois, 1966), p. 110.Google Scholar
  25. 71.
    Felix Dias Bandaranaike (Minister of Finance), The Budget and Economic Development (Colombo, 1961), pp. 9 and 13.Google Scholar
  26. 75.
    See I.B.R.D. and I.D.A., The Problem of Foreign Exchange and Long-Term Growth of Ceylon (Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs; Colombo, January 1968), paragraph 11.Google Scholar
  27. 76.
    See I.B.R.D. and I.D.A., Recent Economic Trends in Ceylon (Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs; Colombo, September 1966), paragraph 44. Also, The Development Programme 1966–67 (Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs; Colombo, July 1966), pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  28. 77.
    Ministry of Planning and Employment, The Five Year Plan 1972–1976 (Colombo, November 1971).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© A. Jeyaratnam Wilson 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Jeyaratnam Wilson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of New BrunswickCanada
  2. 2.Department of Economics and Political ScienceUniversity of Sri LankaSri Lanka

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