Cutting Forces in Machining and Their Routine Measurement with Multi-Component Piezo-Electric Force Transducers
Knowledge of actual cutting forces in machining is becoming of paramount importance to both designers and users of machine tools, because optimum machine performance, tool selection, tool life, cutting-edge geometry, combination of tool and material to be machined, accuracy and so on are closely related to the resulting cutting forces. Transducers and platforms for measuring forces in 1, 2 or 3 components and/or torques have been developed and are described here. Quartz is used as the piezo-electric transducer material because it provides extremely high rigidity and excellent dynamic response as well as minimal cross-talk between components. In contrast to other measuring systems, such platforms equal or exceed usual tool holders in terms of rigidity, thus permitting realistic, precise measurements. Practical aspects such as cross-talk between components, frequency response, measuring and recording techniques are discussed and the possibilities of adaptive control by directly mounting transducers into machine tools outlined.
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