Wave Propagation in the Ground
The earth’s surface consists of seawater and soils of different compositions. These media are conductors (although rather poor ones) and possess a rather high dielectric constant. They will therefore behave towards radio waves in a way between conductors and dielectrics. The values of conductivity for seawater range from 4–5 S/m; those for the ground range from 0·01–0·001 S/m. The relative dielectric constant of seawater is 80, and of earth 4–20, according to the degree of humidity. CCIR Report No. 229227 gives a survey of measurement methods for ground conductivity.
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