Right v. Left to West v. East

  • Kalim Siddiqui


Tyrannies, Aristotle pointed out, are all ‘quite short-lived’.1 That depends on one’s view of how short is ‘short’. Ayub Khan’s ten years were undoubtedly too long for those who had to endure them. Modern tyrannical systems tend to become institutionalised, i.e., they become diffuse and self-perpetuating. It was therefore not to be expected that repression in Pakistan would end with Ayub Khan’s departure. Indeed it appears that the tyrants of Pakistan had taken care to ensure that they survived the chief architect of their system.


Majority Party Direct Election Parliamentary Democracy Army Officer Provisional Constitution 
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  1. 1.
    Aristotle, Politics, translated by Ernest Barker (Oxford, 1946) p. 254.Google Scholar

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© Kalim Siddiqui 1972

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  • Kalim Siddiqui

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