Manufacturing Industry

  • W. H. Parker


Industry takes various raw and unfinished materials and transforms them into manufactured goods. These are then available for further use in production (producers’ or capital goods) or as consumer end products (consumers’ goods). This transformation is effected with power-driven machinery, and consequently draws upon sources of energy as well as upon materials for processing. The existence of these energy sources and materials within the bounds of a state constitutes its resource base, which is made up of materials and fuels together with other sources of power, actual and potential, such as falling water, ebbing and flowing tides, winds and the sun. Fuels and raw materials are animal, vegetable or mineral. Before the industrial revolution they were almost wholly animal or vegetable, and drawn from both wild and domesticated animals, from natural and artificial vegetation, but now they are preponderantly mineral. Animal and vegetable products — hides and skins, oils and starches, fibres and timbers are, of course, still used in industry, but to a diminishing extent as substitutes of mineral origin replace them. These resources have been surveyed in Chapter 5 and it seems reasonable to conclude that the mineral resource base of the USSR, taken as a whole, in the light of its larger area and existing geological knowledge, is at least twice as extensive as that of the United States. Its narrower agricultural base is to some degree compensated for by its wider forest resource.


Machine Tool Skilled Labour Aluminium Smelter Clothing Industry Artificial Vegetation 


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    R. V. Greenslade, ‘The Soviet economic system in transition’ in New Directions in the Soviet Economy, Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States (Washington, 1966) p. 8.Google Scholar
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    Quoted by G. W. Nutter in The Soviet Economy, ed. H. G. Shaffer (London, 1964) p. 201.Google Scholar
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    W. H. Parker, ‘The USSR moves west’ in New Scientist (London, 21 Aug 1969) pp. 381–3.Google Scholar
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    Stat. Abst. 1971, p. 534; A. Kosygin, Directives of the Five-Year Economic Development Plan of the USSR for 1971–75 (Moscow, 1971) p. 35.Google Scholar

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© W. H. Parker 1972

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  • W. H. Parker

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