The Control of Lysosomal Enzyme Synthesis and Effects of Steroids

  • A. C. Allison
  • P. Davies
Chapter
Part of the Biological Council book series (BCSDA)

Abstract

Anti-inflammatory effects of adrenal cortical hormones have attracted a great deal of attention during the last decade, especially in connection with rheumatoid arthritis. The following points are well accepted:
  1. 1.

    Rheumatoid synovia contain large numbers of mononuclear cells: lymphocytes (including large pyroninophilic cells, which may be blasts or transformed cells) and macrophages [1, 2].

     
  2. 2.

    In cultures of chick embryonic cartilage, release of lysosomal hydrolases following exposure to anti-cellular antibody or other stressing agents brings about the breakdown of matrix. Studies with specific antibody show that cathepsin D plays a major role in this process [3]. It is likely that release of hydrolases from mononuclear cells is also an important cause of cartilage erosion in rheumatoid arthritis [2].

     
  3. 3.

    The spontaneous release of lysosomal hydrolases from cultured cells, and that induced by complement-sufficient antibody or ultraviolet light, is in large measure prevented by administration of hydrocortisone [4, 5].

     
  4. 4.

    Glucocorticoids diminish the release of hydrolases from isolated lysosomes in vitro under a variety of conditions [6]. These steroids also decrease the redistribution of lysosomal hydrolases which follows the administration of endotoxin [7]. The latter does not necessarily imply intracellular release of hydrolases after endotoxin administration, but the lysosomes may be more readily disrupted by homogenization.

     

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lack, C. H.; In: ‘Lysosomes in Biology and Pathology’; Eds J. T. Dingle and H. B. Fell. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company. 1, (1969) p. 493.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Page Thomas, D. P.; In: ‘Lysosomes in Biology and Pathology’; Eds J. T. Dingle and H. B. Fell. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company. 2, (1969) p. 87.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weston, P. D., Barrett, A. J. and Dingle, J. T.; Nature, Lond.; 222, (1969) 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dingle, J. T., Fell, H. B. and Coombs, R. R.; Int. Arch. Allergy; 31, (1967) 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weissmann, G. and Fell, H. B.; J. exp. Med.; 116, (1962) 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weissmann, G.; Biochem. Pharm.; 14, (1965) 525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weissmann, G. and Thomas, L.; In: ‘Bacterial Endotoxins’; Eds M. Landy and W. Braun. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. (1964) p. 602.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tomkins, G. M., Thompson, E. B., Hayashi, S., Gelehrter, T., Gronner, D. and Peterkofsky, B.; Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol.; 31, (1966) 349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ballard, G. P. and Tomkins, G. M.; J. Cell Biol.; 47, (1970) 222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Allison, A. C. and Mallucci, L.; Lancet; 2, (1964) 1371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hirschhorn, R., Kaplan, J. M., Goldberg, K., Hirschhorn, K. and Weissmann, G.; Science; 147, (1965) 55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brittinger, G., Hirschhorn, R., Douglas, S. and Weissmann, G.; J. Cell. Biol.; 37, (1968) 412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fisher, D. B. and Mueller, G. C.; Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.; 60, (1968) 1396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pogo, B. G. T., Allfrey, V. G. and Mirsky, A. E.; Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 55, (1966) 805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kay, J. E. and Cooper, H. L.; Biochim. biophys. Acta; 186, (1969) 62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Loeb, L. A., Ewald, J. L. and Agarwal, S. S.; Cancer Res.; 30, (1970) 2514.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Penner, P. E., Cohen, L. H. and Loeb, L. A. Nature, Lond; (1971) in press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dougherty, T. F.; In: ‘The Lymphocyte and Lymphocyte Tissue’; Ed. J. W. Rebuck. New York: Hoeber. (1960) pp. 112–124.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Esteban, J. N.; Anat. Rec.; 162, (1968) 349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nowell, P. C.; Cancer Res.; 21, (1961) 1518.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hirschhorn, R., Brittinger, G., Hirschhorn, K. and Weissmann, G.; J. Cell Biol.; 37, (1968) 394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Whitfield, J. F., McManus, J. P. and Gillan, D. J.; J. cell Physiol.; 76, (1970) 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lewis, M. R. and Lewis, W. H.; J. Am. Med. Assoc.; 84, (1925) 798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cohn, Z. A. and Wiener, E.; J. exp. Med.; 118, (1963) 991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cohn, Z. A., Hirsch, J. G. and Fedorko, M. E.; J. exp. Med.; 123, (1966) 747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cohn, Z. A. and Benson, B.; J. exp. Med.; 121, (1965) 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cohn, Z. A. and Benson, B.; J. exp. Med.; 121, (1965) 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cohn, Z. A. and Benson, B.; J. exp. Med.; 121, (1965) 835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cohn, Z. A.; Adv. Immunol.; 9, (1968) 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cohn, Z. A. and Parks, E.; J. exp. Med.; 125, (1967) 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sorkin, E. and Boyden, S. V.; J. Immunol.; 82, (1959) 332.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Huber, H., Polley, M. J., Linscott, W. D., Fuderberg, H. H., Muller-Eberhard, H. J.; Science; 162, (1968) 1281.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lay, W. H. and Nussenzweig, V.; J. exp. Med.; 128, (1968) 991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Huber, H., Douglas, D. S., Nusbacher, J., Kochwa, S. and Rosenfeld, R. E.; Nature Lond.; 229, (1971) 419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cohen, S.; (1971) Unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hess, M. W. and Luscher, E. F.; Exp. Cell Res.; 59, (1970) 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cohn, Z. A. and Parks, E.; J. exp. Med.; 125, (1967) 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ryser, H. J.-P.; Bull. Swiss Acad. Med. Sci.; 24, (1968) 363.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cohn, Z. A. and Parks, E.; J. exp. Med.; 125, (1967) 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cohn, Z. A.; J. exptl. Med.; 124, (1966) 557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ishikawa, H., Bischoff, R. and Holtzer, H.; J. Cell Biol.; 43, (1969) 312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schroeder, T. E.; Biol. Bull.; 137, (1969) 413.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wessells, N. K., Spooner, B. S., Ash, J. F., Bradley, M. O., Luduenda, M. A., Taylor, E. L., Wrenn, J. T. and Yamada, K. M.; Science; 171, (1971) 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dingle, J. T., Fell, H. B. and Glauert, A. M.; J. Cell Sci.; 4, (1969) 139.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cohn, Z. A. and Ehrenreich, B. A.; J. exp. Med.; 129, (1969) 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cohn, Z. A.; In: ‘Mononuclear Phagocytes’; Ed. R. van Furth. Oxford: Blackwell (1970) 121.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wiener, E. and Marmary, Y., Lab. Invest.; 21, (1969) 505.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thomas, L.; Ann. Rev. Med.; 3, (1952) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Heller, J. H.; Endocrinology; 56, (1955) 80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hirsch, J. G. and Church, A. B.; J. clin. Invest.; 40, (1961) 794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Berger, R. R. and Karnovsky, M. L.; Fed. Proc.; 25, (1966) 840.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Merkow. L., Pardo, M., Epstein, S. M., Verney, E. and Sidransky, H.; Science; 160, (1968) 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Remington, J. S.; (1971) Private communication.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bangham, A. D., Standish, M. and Weissmann, G.; J. Mol. Biol.; 13, (1965) 253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Weissmann, G. and Keiser, H.; Biochem. Pharm.; 14, (1965) 537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Seeman, P. M.;Internat. Rev. Neurobiol.; 9, (1966) 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Weismann, G.; In: ‘The Interactions of Drugs and Subcellular Components of Animal Cells’; Ed. P. N. Campbell. London: J. & A. Churchill. (1968) p. 203.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Heap, R. B., Symons, A. M. S. and Watkins, J. C.; Biochim. biophys. Acta; 218, (1970) 482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chapman, D. and Wallach, D. F. H.; In: ‘Biological Membranes’; Ed. D. Chapman. New York: Academic Press. (1968) p. 125.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Butler, K. W., Smith, I. C. P. and Schneider, M.; Biochim. biophys. Acta; 219, (1970) 514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hubbell, W. L., Metcalfe, J. C., Metcalfe, S. M. and McConnell, H. M.; Biochim. biophys. Acta; 219, (1970) 415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Allison, A. C. and Young, M. R.; In: ‘Lysosomes in Biology and Pathology’; Eds J. T. Dingle and H. B. Fell. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company. 2, (1969) 600.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Allison, A. C., Peover, M. E. and Gough, T. A.; Life Sciences; 12, (1962) 729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Biology Endowment Fund 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. C. Allison
    • 1
  • P. Davies
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Research CentreHarrow, MiddlesexEngland

Personalised recommendations