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Production of Citreoviridin, a Neurotoxic Mycotoxin of Penicillium Citreo-Viride Biourge

  • Yoshio Ueno

Abstract

In 1940, Miyake et al.1 discovered toxic yellowed rice infected with a Penicillium sp. which was designated as P. toxicarium Miyake sp.var.2 and later was identified as P. citreo-viride Biourge. Uraguchi3,4,5,6 has carried out extensive toxicological and epidemiological investigations on the mouldy rice as a causative factor in acute cardiac beriberi (Shoshinkakke) which was prevalent in Japan in the past. He demonstrated that:
  1. (1)

    the ethanol extract of P. citreo-viride Biourge was actually neurotoxic to several animals, causing the same symptoms as those noted in acute cardiac beriberi;

     
  2. (2)

    a marked drop in the high incidence of ‘Shoshin-kakke’ in Japan occurred in 1910 although the discovery of vitamins occurred 1 year later and their usage in practical medicine only a further 10 years later, indicating that avitaminosis is not acceptable as a reasonable theory for the cause of ‘Shoshin-kakke’;

     
  3. (3)

    when rice inspection conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture was introduced in major rice-producing districts in about 1910 the high incidence of ‘Shoshin-kakke’ also decreased. Thus, intake of ungraded rice or mouldy rice is presumably a suspected causative factor in the disease.6 For these reasons Dr Uraguchi,6,7,8 has stressed that acute cardiac beriberi is caused by mycotoxic intoxication originating from the metabolite(s) of P. citreo-viride Biourge.

     

Keywords

Ethanol Extract Polished Rice Lethal Toxicity Brilliant Yellow Czapek Medium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

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    Miyake, I., Naito, H. and Tsunoda, H. (1940). Beikokuriyo Kenkyujo Hokoku, 1,1. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© South African Medical Research Council 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshio Ueno
    • 1
  1. 1.Microbial Chemistry, Microbial ChemistryFaculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesScience University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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