The rule-making processes of the European Communities described here demonstrate the supranational character of this highly developed regional system. The rule-making function, which includes administrative regulations and rulings, is shared in the Communities by two organs. A delicate balance of power exists between the Council of Ministers, representing the will of the member states’ governments, and the Commission, representing the interests of the organization and composed of internationally oriented bureaucrat-politicians. The Commission formulates policy, which then must be approved by the Council before it is implemented by the Commission. In addition to these two organs, there is a sub-system of advisory councils and committees of permanent, ambassadorial-level officials to review and negotiate differences in opinions among the various participants before final disposition of policy proposals is made. The advisory councils in particular permit representatives of private interest groups to interact with the political authorities of the system. Interest group pressure is also brought to bear on the system through national and transnational associations in the manner described in Chapter II and amplified by the two authors of this selection.
KeywordsMember State Supra Note Foreign Affair Plenary Session Foreign Minister
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