Advertisement

Trend of Real Income of the Rural Poor in East Pakistan

  • Swadesh R. Bose

Abstract

Pakistan’s gross national product has been rising over time. While G.N.P. per capita remained practically unchanged during the 1950s, it increased appreciably in the 1960s. The trend of per capita income does not, however, indicate whether and to what extent economic development had ‘trickle down’ effects and improved the lot of the relatively poorer sections of society. Studies of intertemporal changes in inequality of income distribution and in levels of income (consumption) could show what changes actually took place in the absolute and relative income position of the poor.

Keywords

Capita Income Wage Rate Real Wage Consumer Price Index Real Income 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Bergan, A., ‘Personal Income Distribution and Personal Savings in Pakistan, 1963/4’, Pakistan Development Review vii, 2, summer 1967. See chap. 8 of this volume.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Darling, M., Report on Labour Conditions in Agriculture in Pakistan (Karachi: Ministry of Labour, Government of Pakistan, 1955).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    East Pakistan, Bureau of Statistics, Monthly Economic Statistics of East Pakistan (relevant months).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    East Pakistan, Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Digest of East Pakistan, 1965 (Dacca: Bureau of Statistics).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    East Pakistan, Directorate of Agriculture, Weather and Crop Report (weekly and monthly issues).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    East Pakistan, Finance Department, Budget Documents 1965/6 and 1967/8 (speech of Finance Minister).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    East Pakistan (a group of experts), Transportation Survey of East Pakistan 1967.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Griffin, K. B., ‘Financing Development Plans in Pakistan’, Pakistan Development Review v, 4, winter 1965. See chap. 2 of this volume.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Habibullah, M., The Pattern of Agricultural Unemployment: A Case Study of an East Pakistan Village (Dacca: Bureau of Economic Research, Dacca University, 1962).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Haq, K., ‘A Measurement of Inequality in Urban Personal Income Distribution in Pakistan’, Pakistan Development Review, iv, 4, winter 1964.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Hussain, M., The Pattern of a Peasant Economy: Puthia, A Case Study (Rajshahi: Socio-Economic Research Board, Rajshahi University, 1963).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Iyengar, N. S. and Bhattacharya, N., ‘On the Effect of Differentials in Consumer Price Index on Measures of Inequality’, Sankhya, series B, 27, Sept. 1965.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Khan, A. R., ‘What has been Happening to Real Wages in Pakistan?’, Pakistan Development Review, vii 3, autumn 1967. See chap. 9 of this volume.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Khan, T. M. and Bergan, A., ‘Measurement of Structural Change in the Pakistan Economy: A Review of National Income Estimates, 1949/50 — 1963/4’, Pakistan Development Review, vi, 2, summer 1966.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Lewis, S. R. and Hussain, S. M., Relative Price Changes and Industrialisation in Pakistan, 1951–64 (Karachi: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 1967).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Mahalanobis, P. C., ‘A Method of Fractile Graphical Analysis’, Econometrica, 28, 2, April 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Pakistan, Central Statistical Office, Pakistan Statistical Year Book, 1964 (Karachi: C.S.O.).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Pakistan, C.S.O., Statistical Bulletin (monthly).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Pakistan, C.S.O., The Quarterly Survey of Current Economic Conditions 1963/4. (Karachi: C.S.O.).Google Scholar
  20. [19a]
    Pakistan, C.S.O., National Sample Survey, 1960 and 1961 (second and third rounds) (Karachi: C.S.O.).Google Scholar
  21. [20]
    Pakistan, Census of Pakistan, 1951 and 1961 (Karachi: Manager of Publications).Google Scholar
  22. [20a]
    Pakistan, Ministry of Finance, Economic Survey 1966/7 (Rawalpindi: Office of the Economic Adviser, Ministry of Finance).Google Scholar
  23. [21]
    Pakistan, Planning Commission, Third Five-Year Plan (1965–70) (Karachi: Manager of Publications, 1965).Google Scholar
  24. [22]
    Pakistan Academy for Rural Development (PARD), An Evaluation of the Rural Works Programme: East Pakistan, 1962/63 (Comilla Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, 1963).Google Scholar
  25. [23]
    Papanek, G. F., Pakistan’s Development — Social Goals and Private Incentives (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  26. [24]
    Rahman, A. T. R., An Evaluation of the Rural Works Programme: East Pakistan, 1963/64 (Comilla: Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, 1966).Google Scholar
  27. [25]
    Rahman, M. A., ‘East-West Pakistan: A Problem in the Political Economy of Planning’ in G. F. Papanek (ed.), Government Policy and Private Enterprise in Pakistan (forthcoming; tentative title).Google Scholar
  28. [26]
    Rajshahi University, Committee for the Economic Evaluation of the Rural Works Programme in East Pakistan, ‘Survey of Employment, Income and Expenditure of Rural Households in East Pakistan, 1965–66’ (unpublished proformas).Google Scholar
  29. [27]
    Rao, V. K. R. V. (ed.), Agricultural Labour in India (Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1962).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pakistan Development Review and S. R. Bose 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swadesh R. Bose

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations