If we disregard the pre-1950 period, the earliest reformist attempts can be traced back to the early 1950s — first in Yugoslavia (1950– 52), then in Hungary (1953–54),Czechoslovakia (1953–54) and the German Democratic Republic (1954–55). However, only in Yugoslavia did they result in departures from command central planning and management, viz. directive annual plans were largely discontinued, the price mechanism was partly restored, workers’ self-management was introduced and the de-collectivization of land followed.
KeywordsForeign Trade Economic Reform Socialist Economy Market Mechanism German Democratic Republic
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