IN SUMMARIZING the period 1750–1850 let me state again the four trends in educational innovation that have ap-peared. First, there is the stream of thought from the European Enlightenment and the romanticism of Rousseau, which flowed more or less directly into English schools through Williams, Day, and the Edgeworths, although there were idiosyncratics like Gilpin and Manson before them. Second, there is the period of assimilation by a man like Owen, whose educational work bears traces of the Enlightenment and Pestalozzi and Fellenberg, but whose modulation of middle-class thinking to working-class problems is one of the remarkable contributions to change in this period. Yet it would be to oversimplify if it were not admitted that utopian experiments were not always working-class ventures. The point is, however, that Owen represents a second-generation version, a British adaptation of the Continental influences. Third, there is the straight line of thought from Bentham and Mill to the utilitarian theory and practice of the Hills at Hazelwood for the children of the urban intelligentsia.


Secondary Education British Adaptation Historical Context Main Line Compulsory Schooling 
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© W. A. C. Stewart 1972

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