IN THE later eighteenth century Continental educationalists had stressed the value of manual arts in education. Rousseau, in mile, considered that manual labour was the pursuit that came nearest to a state of nature.1 He would have children learn a trade and gave it the same importance as the more traditional subjects. ‘He must work like a peasant and think like a philosopher,’ he wrote of Émile, ‘if he is not to be as idle as a savage. The great secret of education is to use exercise of mind and body as relaxation one to the other. ’2 This recog-nition that work with the hands could be an important aid to mental education was developed by Pestalozzi, Fellenberg, Basedow, and other Continental educationalists,3 and Fellen-berg’s agricultural estate at Hofwyl took the principle to a high level. Thousands of visitors to Hofwyl carried the ideas away into almost every country in Europe, where they became the subject of discussion and experiment within various national cultures.


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© W. A. C. Stewart 1972

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  • W. A. C. Stewart

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