Engineers are concerned with friction and its effects in relation to the moving parts of machines; the greater the friction the less efficient the machine. Excessive friction may even generate sufficient heat to cause irreparable damage to components. Lubrication is a process for reducing friction, and it takes the form of interposing between rubbing surfaces a material (the lubricant) which may be a gas, a liquid, or a solid (or a semi-solid, such as a grease). The internal friction of the lubricant, which is generally a liquid, is less than that produced by the rubbing together of two dry metal surfaces.
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