The Opening to the Left

  • Elizabeth Wiskemann


After the Tambroni crisis, and with the other parallel anxiety created by the apparently renewed strength of the Italian Communist Party, co-operation between the Christian Democrat reformers and not merely the Social Democrats, but Nenni’s Socialist Party, obviously came appreciably nearer to realisation. The slow progress towards this goal can be partially explained in terms of the personalities involved. It has been seen that Fanfani was excessively touchy while Nenni was a character made up of weaknesses caused by lack of intellectual clarity; he was tormented, partly because he was good-hearted, by the highly intelligent Riccardo Lombardi who refused to leave the PSI but yet from within it invariably condemned all Nenni’s decisions. Nenni, with much difficulty, had decided to break with the PCI in spite of his entanglement with the Communists in the CGIL, in spite that is to say of his own pro-Communists or Carristi (as they were called) who opposed the breach at any cost. Indeed Luciano Lama, Secretary-General of the CGIL, at this point left the PSI and became a Communist. There remained for Nenni to decide whether he could accept Italy’s membership of NATO which the Christian Democrats would not abandon, and whether he could accept the social policy of men like Fanfani and Moro.


State Holding Liberal Party Party Congress Fiscal Reform Christian Democrat Party 


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  1. 1.
    See J. La Palombara, Italy: The Politics of Planning (1966), p. 64.Google Scholar

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© The Estate of Elizabeth Wiskemann 1971

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  • Elizabeth Wiskemann

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