The Chinese, over the centuries, had developed a self-contained society based on agriculture rather than trade, governed by landlords and civil servants rather than merchants and politicians. Whilst the Japanese readily accepted Western technique, and the Indians were powerless to refuse British domination, the Chinese scholar-officials, steeped in Confucian ideals, rejected Western demands for trading and commercial opportunities.
KeywordsManchu Dynasty Open Door Policy Communist Revolution Manchu Government Foreign Troop
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