The series of invasions and changes in rulers which had characterized Indian history before the coming of the Europeans made little impression on traditional society. Conquest had not been the original aim of English traders but as they became involved in local politics, and extended their territory and influence, the Indian way of life was transformed. The Indian reaction to the British impact was a determination to be free and in 1947 India and Pakistan emerged as independent nations (see figure 12.1).
KeywordsBritish Government Secondary Industry Indian Reaction Indian Life East India Company
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