The International Development of India and Pakistan

  • Benjamin I. Cohen
Part of the International Economic Association Series book series (IEA)


This paper attempts to review briefly what other economists have already written about the international trade of India and Pakistan, to raise some questions which may suggest further empirical work, and to make some assertions for which I cannot now cite any reference. Section I briefly discusses the import policies of India and Pakistan. Section II examines the exports of India and Pakistan to the rest of the world, and section III deals with the benefits to each country of increased trade between them.2 I ignore the international movement of people and of capital. 1950 and 1967, and the index of export prices of the industrial countries rose by 1¸5 per cent per year in the same period: International Financial Statistics. If one knew the appropriate exchange rate over time, one could compare directly the ratio of imports to G.N.P. over time in India and Pakistan.


Cotton Textile Trade Liberalisation Custom Union Import Substitution Total Import 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 4.
    For a study of this factor in Pakistan’s development, see Stephen R. Lewis Jr, ‘Effects of Trade Policy on Domestic Relative Prices: Pakistan, 1951–64’, American Economic Review, LVIII (Mar 1968) 60–78.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Hogan gives a formula for the percentage of excess capacity. For example, if industrial gross investment is growing at an annual rate of 10 per cent, if capital lasts an average of ten years, and if the learning period is two years, then at a point in time only 71 per cent of installed capacity will be used: W. P. Hogan, ‘Some Results in the Measurement of Capacity Utilization’, American Economic Review, LIX (Mar 1969) 183–4.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Charles P. Kindleberger, International Economics (Irwin, 1958) pp. 621–3; Jagdish Bhagwati, ‘On the Equivalence of Tariffs and Quotas’, in Trade, Growth and the Balance of Payments (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1965) pp. 53–67.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Henry Bruton, ‘Productivity Growth in Latin America’, American Economic Review, LVII (Dec 1967) 1099–1116Google Scholar
  5. Jeffrey G. Williamson, ‘Dimensions of Postwar Philippine Economic Progress’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, LXXXIII (Feb 1969) 93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 3.
    ‘The history of India at all times has provided an example of a country impoverished by a preference for liquidity amounting to so strong a passion that even an enormous and chronic influx of the precious metals has been insufficient to bring down the rate of interest to a level which was compatible with the growth of real wealth’: J. M. Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (London: Macmillan, 1936) p. 337.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Manmohan Singh, India’s Export Trends and the Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964)Google Scholar
  8. Benjamin I. Cohen, ‘The Stagnation of Indian Exports, 1951–1961’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, LXXVIII (NOV 1964) 604–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 1.
    In 1948–9, India accounted for 80 per cent of East Pakistan’s foreign trade and 53 per cent of West Pakistan’s foreign trade: M. Akhlaqur Rahman, Partition, Integration, Economic Growth and Interregional Trade (Karachi: Institute of Development Economics, 1963) p. 88.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Economic Association 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin I. Cohen
    • 1
  1. 1.Yale UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations