Active Transport of Calcium by Intestine: Studies with a Calcium Activity Electrode

  • D. Schachter
  • S. Kowarski
  • Phyllis Reid
Part of the Biological Council book series


Previous studies have demonstrated an intestinal mechanism which transfers calcium from the mucosa to the serosa in vitro (Rasmussen, 1959; Harrison & Harrison, 1960; Schachter, Dowdle & Schenker, 1960a,b; Finkelstein & Schachter, 1962; Schachter, Kowarski, Finkelstein & Ma, 1966; Schachter, Kowarski & Reid, 1967) or to the bloodstream in vivo (Wasserman, Kallfelz & Comar, 1961; Krawitt & Schedl, 1968) against concentration and electrical potential gradients. The transport is dependent on oxidative phosphorylation (Schachter & Rosen, 1959), and is rate-limited (Schachter et al, 1960a); it is relatively specific for Ca as compared with other cations (Schachter & Rosen, 1959; Schachter et al., 1960a) and is competitively inhibited by certain cations and actively transported hexoses (Schachter et al., 1960b; Schachter, Kimberg & Schenker, 1961). Moreover, it is dependent on vitamin D (Harrison and Harrison, 1960; Schachter et al., 1961, 1967) and varies in the rat with growth, pregnancy, and the level of dietary Ca (Schachter et al., 1960a; Kimberg, Schachter & Schenker, 1961). These properties suggest that the mechanism might be classified as an active transport. In earlier studies (Schachter et al., 1960a) a murexide technique was used to demonstrate that most of the Ca transferred to the serosal surfaces of everted gut sacs in vitro was ionized, and it was concluded that the mechanism is probably a cation pump.


Serosal Surface Activity Gradient Cation Pump Serosal Medium Active Cation Pump 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Batt, E. R. and Schachter, D. (1969). Am. J. Physiol., 216, 1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bjerrum, J., Schwarzenbach, G. and SillÉN, L. G. (1957). Stability Constants Part I: Organic Ligands, p. 39. London: The Chemical SocietyGoogle Scholar
  3. Bray, G. A. (1960). Analyt. Biochem., 1, 279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crane, R. K. (1960). Physiol. Rev., 40, 789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Csaky, T. A. (1961). Am. J. Physiol., 201, 999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Finkelstein, J. D. and Schachter, D. (1962). Am. J. Physiol., 203, 873Google Scholar
  7. Gordan, G. S. and Schachter, D. (1963). Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med., 113, 760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Harrison, H. E. and Harrison, H. C. (1960). Am. J. Physiol., 199, 265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Helbock, H. J., Forte, J. G. and Saltman, P. (1966). Biochem. biophys. Acta, 126, 81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hodgkin, A. L., Huxley, A. F. and Katz, B. (1949). Arch. sci. physiol., 3, 129Google Scholar
  11. Kimberg, D. V., Schachter, D. and Schenker, H. (1961). Am. J. Physiol., 200, 1256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Krawitt, E. L. and Schedl, H. P. (1968). Am. J. Physiol., 214, 232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Rasmussen, H. (1959). Endocrinology, 65, 517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Schachter, D. (1963). In The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes, ed. Wasserman, R. H., p. 197. New York: Academic PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schachter, D. (1967). In L’Osteomalacie, ed. Hloco, D. J., p. 199. Paris: Masson and Cie.Google Scholar
  16. Schachter, D., Kimberg, D. V. and Schenker, H. (1961). Am. J. Physiol., 200, 1263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Schachter, D., Dowdle, E. B. and Schenker, H. (1960a). Am. J. Physiol., 198, 263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Schachter, D., Dowdle, E. B. and Schenker, H. (1960b). Am. J. Physiol., 198, 275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Schachter, D., Kowarski, S., Finkelstein, J. D. and MA, R. W. (1966). Am. J. Physiol., 211, 1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Schachter, D., Kowarski, S. and Reid, P. (1967). J. clin. Invest., 46, 1113Google Scholar
  21. Schachter, D. and Rosen, S. M. (1959). Am. J. Physiol., 196, 357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (1964). Desert Animals, p. 146. Oxford: Clarendon PressGoogle Scholar
  23. Walser, M. and Robinson, B. H. B. (1963). In The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes, ed. Wasserman, R. H., p. 310. New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  24. Wasserman, R. H. and Taylor, A. N. (1966). Science, N.Y., 152, 791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wasserman, R. H., Kallfelz, F. A. and Comar, C. L. (1961). Science, N.Y., 133, 883CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Schachter
    • 1
  • S. Kowarski
    • 1
  • Phyllis Reid
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations