In September 1912, when Jawaharlal returned to India, the political life of the country in so far as it was represented by Congress seemed complacent and placid. Congress had crushed its extremist wing immediately after the Surat crisis, and since then it had proceeded on a strict constitutional path under the vigilant control of its moderate masters. Sir Pherozeshah Mehta and Gokhale between them formed the body and soul of Congress.
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