External Evidence

  • Richard Swinburne
Part of the New Studies in the Philosophy of Religion book series (NSPR)


Now so far in the argument we have supposed that there was no other evidence for or against the existence of a god or gods other than historical evidence (evidence of apparent memory, traces and testimony) and scientific evidence (evidence of the regular operation of natural laws), supporting or opposing the occurrence in certain circumstances of violations of laws of nature. We have found in this case what evidence we would need to show the occurrence of violations and how we would need evidence showing their occurrence in circumstances strongly analogous to those in which intentional human actions are performed for us to attribute them to the agency of a god. And I must add that, in my view, such evidence as is currently available about the occurrence of violations and the circumstances of their occurrence is not on balance strong enough to render very probable the interventionist agency of a god. However the case is radically different if we have evidence of other types for or against the existence of a god. I call such evidence the external evidence as opposed to the internal evidence referred to above.


Black Body Radiation Historical Evidence Internal Evidence External Evidence High Prior Probability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Richard Swinburne 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Swinburne
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HullUK

Personalised recommendations