Religion and ‘Dualism’

  • T. R. Miles
Part of the New Studies in the Philosophy of Religion book series (NSPR)


For the sake of clarity I shall begin by commenting on some of the different strands of meaning in the word ‘religious’. To make such comments is not a distinctively philosophical activity, since I am not concerned, as I was in the case of the word ‘experience’, to exhibit any philosophical misclassification; but in many kinds of inquiry discussion of what one means by a word is often a desirable preliminary.


Religious Experience Ontological Status Religious Believer Christian Religion Spiritual World 
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Notes and References

  1. 2.
    Quoted from A. K. Rogers, A Student’s History of Philosophy (Macmillan, London, 1912) pp. 397–8. It is interesting that the 1844 translation of Holbach (The System of Nature, Cousins, London, 1844) substitutes ‘superstition’ for ‘religion’, as does M. F. Smith in his translation of Lucretius (Sphere Books, London, 1969).Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    C. L. Stevenson, Ethics and Language (Oxford U.P., 1944). There is, I think, an important difference between expressing certain values and trying to persuade people to adopt these values; and since some of the examples which Stevenson gives seem to involve the former, it is arguable that the word ‘persuasive’ is a misnomer. As it has gained wide currency in philosophy, however, I have decided to use it rather than coin a fresh term of my own.Google Scholar
  3. 7.
    C. E. Osgood, G. J. Suci and P. H. Tannenbaum, The Measurement of Meaning (Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1957).Google Scholar
  4. 10.
    E. S. Waterhouse, The Philosophy of Religious Experience (Epworth Press, London, 1923), p. 96.Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    F. E. England, The Validity of Religious Experience (Ivor Nicholson & Watson, London, 1937) p. 11.Google Scholar
  6. 16.
    The examples of ‘Wednesday’, ‘justice’ and ‘of-side’ have been used by Professor Ryle in discussion, and I owe the examples of ‘reach’ and ‘crawl’ to Professor Skinner. See B. F. Skinner, Verbal Behaviour (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1957) p. 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 17.
    Anselm, Proslogion, II. See J. P. Migne, Patrologiae Cursus Completus (1853) CLVUI, col. 223.Google Scholar
  8. 18.
    T. R. Miles, Religion and the Scientific Outlook (Allen & Unwin, London, 1959) pp. 36–46.Google Scholar
  9. 19.
    G. J. Warnock, ‘Metaphysics in Logic’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, li (1950–1) 201.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© T. R. Miles 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. R. Miles
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor of PsychologyUniversity College of North WalesBangorUK

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