Monastic Reform and Cluniac Spirituality
Although there is a vast amount of literature on monastic reform in the tenth century, it can justifiably be claimed, as has been stated recently, that the movement has not been depicted in its true light in the general history of the period.
KeywordsEleventh Century Religious Revival Christian Society Monastic Order Religious Piety
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- 1.Raffaello Morghen from ‘Riforma monastica e Spiritualità cluniacense’, in Spiritualità Cluniacense, Convegni del Centro di Studi sulla spiritualità medievale, 1958 (Todi, 1960) pp. 33–56. Ed.]Google Scholar
- 2.Among recent historical work on the origins of Cluniac monasticism particular mention may be made of two accounts: J. F. Lemarignier, ‘Structures monastiques et structures politiques dans la France, de la fin du Xe et du début de XIe siècle’, and Dom K. Hallinger, ‘Progressi e problemi della ricerca sulla riforma pre-gregoriana’, both papers printed in Il Monachesimo nell’Alto Medioevo e la formazione della civiltà occidentale, Settimana di studio del C.I. St. sull’A. medioevo, IV (Spoleto, 1957) 357 ff. and 257 ff. See also the article by Dom Hallinger [translated below, pp. 29 ff. Ed.], which gives valuable and extensive information. Notwithstanding Lemarignier’s important contribution to the problem, the underlying research still appears to be too rigidly orientated towards the possibility of political interpretations of spiritual phenomena, whereas the variety of developments reveals a complexity of determining causes. Dom Hallingers by contrast, makes acute observations on the concept of monastic reform, though he tends to limit them to a critique of the Marxist interpretation of Cluniac monasticism propounded by E. Werner. Dom Philibert Schmitz has emphasised, with considerable scholarship, the undoubted influence of Benedict of Aniane on the reform of the monastic order, especially as regards the introduction of certain liturgical innovations subsequently accepted as part of the Benedictine tradition. I would not be prepared to subscribe, as I think Dom Philibert Schmitz does, to the thesis of Naberhaus in his biography Benedikt von Aniane, Werke und Persönlichkeit (Münster, 1930), where he attributes a radical, decisive importance to the reform of 817 as regards the ‘whole destiny of western monasticism’.Google Scholar
- 1.A. Fliche, La Réforme gregorienne (Louvain and Paris, 1924, 1925, 1937) 46.Google Scholar
- See also R. Morghen, ‘Questioni Gregoriani’, in Archivio della R. Deputazione Romana di St. patria, LXV, vol. VIII (1942).Google Scholar
- 1.E. Sackur, Die Cluniacenser in ihrer kirchlichen and allgemeingeschichtlichen Wirksamkeit, 2 vols (Halle, 1892–4); Hallinger, ‘Progressi e problemi’ (see above, n. 2) p. 258.Google Scholar
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- 1.G. Falco, ‘La crisi dell’autorità e to sforzo della ricostruzione in Italia’, in I problemi comuni dell’Europa post-carolingia, Settimana di studio del C.I. St. sull’A. medioevo, II (Spoleto, 1955) 39.Google Scholar