The Rule of the Church and the Tyrant

  • John Larner


Th. donations of Pipin and Charlemagne, in the eighth and ninth centuries, had given to the papacy the land known as the Exarchate of Ravenna, and within this territory, specifically Ravenna itself, Rimini, Cesena, Forlimpopoli, For 11, and the Montefeltro. These grants had been confirmed by many of their successors: by Louis the Pious in 817, by Otto I in 962, by Henry II in 1020, and by Otto IV in 1201. Yet from the tenth century, the province had been administered de fact. as a part of the Empire. In 1275, Gregory X, fearing perhaps the pretensions of Charles d’Anjou, opened negotiations with Rudolph of Habsburg for the transfer of Romagna and Bologna back to direct papal administration. After long discussions, on the 29 May 1278, the province was formally handed to Nicholas III. On 30 June, Rudolph renounced all oaths of loyalty to the Empire from the men of the province. The individual towns acknowledged their new loyalty, and on 24 September, Bertoldo Orsini, nephew of the Pope, was appointed as rector of the two new papal provinces. The Empire had abandoned a territory that it could not own; the papacy had accepted a possession that it was to find difficult to hold.2


Papal Official Thirteenth Century Fourteenth Century Fellow Citizen Papal Government 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Coluccio Salutati, Tractatus de Tyrann., ed. F. Ercole, Berlin and Leipzig, 1914, XXXX.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    G. Mollat, Les Papes d’Avigno., Paris, 1949, 213–16.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    P. Sella, ‘Costituzione per la Romagna pubblicate nel parliamento di Cesena dell’ anno 1289’, AS., 1925, 243–50; L. Colini-Baldeschi, ‘Le “ Constitutiones Romandiolae ” di Giovanni d’ Appia’, Nuovi Studi Mediaeval., II, 221–52; P. Sella, ‘Una costituzione inedita per la Romagna’, RSDI. II, 144–6.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Salimbene, 539; D. P. Waley, ‘Papal armies in the Thirteenth century’, EHR. 1957, 2–6, 23–4.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    G. Ermini, ‘I rettori provinciali dello Stato della Chiesa RSDI. IV, 1931, 34–6.Google Scholar
  6. 10.
    Poesie storiche relative all’ Itali., ed. V. Bartholomaeis, Rome, 1931, II, 288.Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    Cantinelli, 30, 38–9; Mittarelli, 513. G. Fasoli, ‘La pace del 1279 tra i partiti bolognesi’, ASI. 1933, 49–75.Google Scholar
  8. 12.
    ‘Il serventese dei Lambertazzi e dei Geremei’, ed. F. Pellegrini, AMR. 3, IX, 1891.Google Scholar
  9. 15.
    G. Fasoli, ‘Guelfi e Ghibellini di Romagna nel 1280–1’, AS., 1936, I, 157–80.Google Scholar
  10. 18.
    Liber Pontificali., ed. L. Duchesne, Paris, 1955, II, 459–61; Corp. Chron. Bo., II, 213–14; Waley, ‘Papal armies‘, 18.Google Scholar
  11. 22.
    Les Régistres de Martin I., ed. F. Olivier-Martin, Paris, 1935, 214–15;Google Scholar
  12. F. M. Powicke, ‘Guy de Montfort (1265–71)’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Societ., 1935, 1–23.Google Scholar
  13. 24.
    Codex Italiae Diplomaticu., ed. J. Lunig, Frankfort, 1735, IV, 41–2.Google Scholar
  14. 25.
    For which, G. Zaccagnini, ‘Maghinardo da Susinana ed il comune di Bologna’, AMR. 4, VIII, 1918, 52–146.Google Scholar
  15. 42.
    Jacopo della Lana, Comment., Bologna, 1866, I, 433.Google Scholar
  16. 47.
    S. Bemicoli, Governi di Ravenna e di Romagn., Ravenna, 1898, under dates;Google Scholar
  17. E. Salzer, Über die Anfänge der Signorie in Oberitalien.Berlin, 1900, 56–60; Cantinelli, 79. Rubeus, 470–1; Fantuzzi, III, 168, 171.Google Scholar
  18. 57.
    Chiaramonte, 162, 178. For Cesena, see: G. Franceschini, ‘La signoria dei Conti di Montefeltro a Cesena’, SR. V, 1954, 279–327.Google Scholar
  19. 63.
    No commentator has questioned the accuracy of Dante’s line. Flavio Biondo of Forlì in the Historia ab inclinatione Romanorum. written in the middle of the fifteenth century, speaks of Dante’s presence at Forlì on two occasions; first before spring 1303 when the Whites were preparing to attack the Mugello; second (though Barbi questions his accuracy here) in the second half of 1310. Biondo implied that his source was the letters of Pellegrino Calvi, the ‘epistolarum magister’ of Scarpetta Ordelaffi, which he believed had been also read by Benvenuto da Imola (though this again seems unlikely). See, M. Barbi, ‘Sulla dimora di Dante a Forlì’, Problemi di critica dantesc., Florence, 1934, I, 188–95 (also in BSDI. 1892, 21–8). Dante was not present at Forlì in 1308, nor was he secretary to Scarpetta as Troya asserted in De Veltro Allegoric.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© John Larner 1965

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Larner
    • 1
  1. 1.Glasgow UniversityUK

Personalised recommendations