The Rule of the Church and the Tyrant

  • John Larner


Th. donations of Pipin and Charlemagne, in the eighth and ninth centuries, had given to the papacy the land known as the Exarchate of Ravenna, and within this territory, specifically Ravenna itself, Rimini, Cesena, Forlimpopoli, For 11, and the Montefeltro. These grants had been confirmed by many of their successors: by Louis the Pious in 817, by Otto I in 962, by Henry II in 1020, and by Otto IV in 1201. Yet from the tenth century, the province had been administered de fact. as a part of the Empire. In 1275, Gregory X, fearing perhaps the pretensions of Charles d’Anjou, opened negotiations with Rudolph of Habsburg for the transfer of Romagna and Bologna back to direct papal administration. After long discussions, on the 29 May 1278, the province was formally handed to Nicholas III. On 30 June, Rudolph renounced all oaths of loyalty to the Empire from the men of the province. The individual towns acknowledged their new loyalty, and on 24 September, Bertoldo Orsini, nephew of the Pope, was appointed as rector of the two new papal provinces. The Empire had abandoned a territory that it could not own; the papacy had accepted a possession that it was to find difficult to hold.2


Papal Official Thirteenth Century Fourteenth Century Fellow Citizen Papal Government 


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Copyright information

© John Larner 1965

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Larner
    • 1
  1. 1.Glasgow UniversityUK

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