Distance and Direction — (ii) Secondary Tests

  • Richard Swinburne


LET us now consider some of the tests which we use in practice to measure distance and direction near the surface of the Earth, to substantiate the claim that they are secondary tests. In the examples I shall confine myself to cases of distance being measured from one material object A to another one B in the frame in which A is at rest, viz. the ‘proper distance’ from A to B.


Absolute Magnitude Euclidean Geometry Distant Object Primary Test Apparent Magnitude 
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  1. [1]
    H. Bondi, Cosmology, Cambridge, 1961.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    G. C. McVittie, General Relativity and Cosmology, London, 1956, chapter 8.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    G. C. McVittie, Fact and Theory in Cosmology, London, 1961.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    H. Spencer Jones, General Astronomy, 4th ed., London, 1961.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. D. North, The Measure of the Universe, Oxford, 1965, chapter 15.1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Richard Swinburne 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Swinburne
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HullUK

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