The State and Its Foundations
The French state in 1850 was a Republic. Founded as recently as November, 1848, it had commonly been numbered as the Second in order to emphasize its affinity with the First Republic of 1792. The fashion of harking back to earlier régimes, of reenacting earlier epics, was well set. The Bourbon monarchs, Louis XVIII and Charles X, who came to the throne after the fall of Napoleon, had been “restored Bourbons” whose restoration ended abruptly in 1830 in favor of the upstart liberal “Orleanist” king, Louis Philippe. So, in 1848, when he in turn was overthrown, like his predecessors, by Paris intrigues and riots, there had been simple reversion to a Second Republic.
KeywordsAbsolute Majority Electoral College Municipal Council Executive Power Public Power
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