The German Empire in Peace and War, 1913–1918
In little more than five years the German Empire plunged from the climax of Emperor William’s Silver Jubilee of 1913 to the brink of revolution in 1918. Many Germans attributed the decline to military exhaustion and internal subversion, but the great issues of 1918 were already evident before the war began. In his proclamation of June 19, 1913, the Kaiser expressed the conservative authoritarianism and pompous self-consciousness so characteristic of his reign. German Socialists were hardly impressed by his rule and distrusted his judgment. Even some of the more deferential commentators worried about his reactionary or incompetent civilian advisers and saw the need for reform. These problems were only intensified by the war.
KeywordsPsychological Impact Servative Leader Vital Interest General Staff German People
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