Augustus, following the lead given by Caesar in the province of Asia, abolished the tithe system wherever it prevailed and substituted for it fixed direct taxes, a poll tax (tributum capitis) and a tax on land and other property (tributum soli). The assessment of these taxes involved censuses to count the population and to assess their property, and we have records of many censuses held in various parts of the empire under Augustus. These provincial censuses, it may be noted, have no connection with the Roman censuses recorded in No. 1, §8, which affected Roman citizens only, who were mostly tax free. The Quirinius here mentioned is the same governor of Syria who held the census in Judaea in a.d. 6, during which Jesus is said to have been born. Quintus Aemilius held all the magistracies in his native city before going on to hold two equestrian commissions. Chief of engineers was by now a sinecure equestrian post.


Special Account Direct Taxis Egyptian Woman Census Return Roman Woman 
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© A. H. M. Jones 1970

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