Romanticism pp 122-138 | Cite as

Novalis: “Christendom or Europe”

  • John B. Halsted
Part of the The Documentary History of Western Civilization book series (DHWC)


Friedrich Philipp von Hardenberg (1772–1801) was another of the young artists of the Romantic era who died at a tragically early age as a result of consumption. He was of noble Saxon descent. He studied under tutors before undertaking legal studies at Jena, Leipzig, and Wittenberg. In 1794, having completed his legal preparation, he began to work at a minor government post and later served in the administration of the salt mines of the Elector of Saxony. For his literary career, he adopted the pen name “Novalis,” which was derived from the medieval name of some family connections.


Eternal Life Catholic Faith Religious Sense Catholic State Religious Hatred 


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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • John B. Halsted

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