Between the fall of Ferry and the Chamber election of October 1893, little of French history is visible through a whirling dustscreen of humiliating but scarcely intelligible public scandals. The Boulanger episode, which begins in 1885, falls on either side of the Daniel Wilson scandal of 1887, and moves to its ineffectual climax in 1889. Then, after a short period of the abortive ‘Ralliement’, comes the inglorious farce of Panama. Little of all this had any serious or permanent consequence for the country. True, at the end, some familiar faces have disappeared and been replaced by new ones, but this might well have happened without the alarms and demonstrations which disturbed the country from 1886 to 1894.
KeywordsArmy Corps Familiar Face Autonomist Party French History Republican Group
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