Continuous cathode crossed-field amplifiers with re-entrant electron clouds have in the past been restricted to a relatively small number of resonator cells. This has been due to the requirement that the phase of the signal fed back from output to input via the circulating space charge be within about ± 90° of positive feedback. As a result the maximum allowable number of cells for a given percentage bandwidth was given by NΔθ = 180°; where Δθ is the variation in phase shift per cell across the band and N is the number of cells. Thus for Δθ = 10°, a typical value for a 10%, bandwidth tube, the maximum number of resonator cells is 18.
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- Annales de Radio Électricité, V9 No. 36 April 1954 and No. 38 October 1954Google Scholar