The Chinese revolution of 1911 October 1911–February 1912

  • Peter Lowe


On 12 October 1911 Dorothy Straight, wife of the American loan group representative, wrote to a friend:

… Yesterday Dr Morrison, the famous Correspondent of the London Times, rode up and down the Legation street saying that the end of the Manchu dynasty was at hand.… Willard thinks that it is all nonsense and that so far there has not been enough trouble to warrant all this terrible fright in Peking.1


Manchu Dynasty Japanese Government Foreign Intervention American Minister Manchu Government 
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  1. 1.
    Cited Herbert Croly, Willard Straight (New York, 1924) p. 412.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See M. B. Jansen, The Japanese and Sun Yat-sen (Cambridge, Mass., 1954) for an admirable discussion of Japanese attitudes.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    Kwanha Yim, ‘Yuan Shih-k’ai and the Japanese’, in JAS XXIV (1965) 68.Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    Masaru Ikei, ‘Japan’s response to the Chinese Revolution of 1911’, in JAS XXV (1965–6) 214. I am indebted to Mr Ikei, Lecturer in Far Eastern Diplomatic History, Department of Political Science, Keio University, Tokyo, for generously allowing me to use his paper before publication.Google Scholar
  5. 2.
    See Jansen, p. 111 and E. H. Norman, ‘The Genyosha: A Study in the Origins of Japanese Imperialism’, Pacific Affairs, XVII (1944) 261–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 2.
    Jerome Ch’en, Yuan Shih-k’ai, 1859–1916 (1961) p. 117.Google Scholar
  7. 1.
    See Margery Perham, Lugard: The Years of Authority, 1898–1945 (1960) pp. 360–1; Lord Lugard, then Sir Frederick Lugard, was governor of Hong Kong, 1907–12. Miss Perham cites one of Lugard’s letters alluding to the great excitement and unrest amongst the Chinese in Hong Kong in December 1911.Google Scholar
  8. 2.
    Robert A. Scalapino, Democracy and the Party Movement in Pre-War Japan Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1953) p. 317.Google Scholar
  9. 3.
    Ikei, in JAS XXV 222. My interpretation of Morrison’s role seems to be borne out in a recent work based on Morrison’s private papers, see Cyril Pearl, Morrison of Peking (1967) pp. 235–6. Morrison told the revolutionary leaders that Yuan was the man best qualified to be president.Google Scholar
  10. 3.
    Jordan to Grey, 24 Dec and 26 Dec 1911, F.O. 371/1098. Jordan’s admiration for Yuan is clearly revealed in an article he wrote when in retirement, Sir John Jordan, ‘Some Chinese I have known’, Nineteenth Century and After, LXXXVIII (Dec 1920) 942–61. Yuan was ‘the Chinese of all others for whom I had the greatest admiration, and he is the only high Chinese official whom I can claim to have known intimately in private life’ (p. 953).Google Scholar
  11. 1.
    Marquis Inouye Kaoru had long been interested in advancing Japanese control over Chinese commercial concerns in the Yangtze, both for economic and strategic reasons, especially in view of the close link between the Hanyang Works and the (Japanese) Yawata Works in Kyushu; Inouye therefore did his best to promote the loans. See M. B. Jansen, ‘Yawata, Hanyehping and the Twenty-One Demands’, in PHR XXII (1954) 39–40.Google Scholar

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© Peter Lowe 1969

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  • Peter Lowe

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