The Earl of Northumberland declared that Burghley had been such a courtier all the summer of 15 80 that he would not like to have to answer that the old man would be free of gout in the ensuing winter.1 Burghley’s attendance at Council and renewed activity were in response to the challenge posed by a combination of aggressive papal diplomacy, Jesuit missions and the growth of Spanish power following the annexation of Portugal. The menace of Catholicism intensified, not only in England, but also in Ireland and Scotland. The balance between Spain and France, pivoting on the course of affairs in the Netherlands, now swayed under Spain’s added strength. The ultimate problem was to decide whether England’s safety lay in placating Spain or in supporting France.
KeywordsBereave Parent United Province Jesuit Mission Good Fellow Fraudulent Conveyance
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