Wales and Scotland are the two regions of Britain which have an undeniable historical claim to be regarded as distinct nationalities. But Wales differed markedly from Scotland in the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in that there was virtually no constitutional recognition of its national existence.1 If the Welsh had a theoretical state of equality with the English, it was only in so far as they were able and willing to turn themselves into Englishmen. Yet Welsh awareness of nationality was, partly for that very reason, a stronger force than that of the Scots. The Welsh language had persisted with much greater success than Gaelic in Scotland or Irish in Ireland, and in the nineteenth century it became the main channel of revival for national feeling. Taking Wales and Monmouthshire together, we find that in 1901 almost exactly half the population was capable of speaking Welsh, as compared with only 4.9 per cent of Scotsmen who could speak Gaelic, and 14.4 per cent of Irishmen who could speak Irish.
KeywordsCorn Depression Mold Income Shale
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