The region that we now have to consider contains the whole of Cumberland, Northumberland, and Durham, the northern half of Westmorland and the Cleveland district of Yorkshire.1 The region is divided by the Pennines, and this division is naturally an important one ; indeed, there are so many marked differences between the ‘Lake Counties’ and the ‘North-East’ that it is quite possible to regard them as different regions. But communications across the Pennines have long been sufficiently good to enable Newcastle to serve in many ways as a provincial capital for the counties on the west coast as well as for its immediately neighbouring areas, and thus it has considerably outranked Carlisle in importance. There are also many similarities of character between all parts of North England, which justify common treatment. Physically, the highlands dominate them all, and the main feature of northern agriculture is its pastoral character, except on coastal plains and to some extent in the ‘dales’ which run inland. Historically, the settlement pattern of the region was shaped by its position as England’s border country. Incursions from Scotland were always to be feared and to be guarded against, and already even before Roman times this placed a distinctive stamp upon the institutions and architecture of the region.


Labour Party Liberal Party Social Geography Market Town Lake County 


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Copyright information

© Henry Pelling 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry Pelling
    • 1
  1. 1.St. John’s CollegeCambridgeUK

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