The region that we now have to consider contains the whole of Cumberland, Northumberland, and Durham, the northern half of Westmorland and the Cleveland district of Yorkshire.1 The region is divided by the Pennines, and this division is naturally an important one ; indeed, there are so many marked differences between the ‘Lake Counties’ and the ‘North-East’ that it is quite possible to regard them as different regions. But communications across the Pennines have long been sufficiently good to enable Newcastle to serve in many ways as a provincial capital for the counties on the west coast as well as for its immediately neighbouring areas, and thus it has considerably outranked Carlisle in importance. There are also many similarities of character between all parts of North England, which justify common treatment. Physically, the highlands dominate them all, and the main feature of northern agriculture is its pastoral character, except on coastal plains and to some extent in the ‘dales’ which run inland. Historically, the settlement pattern of the region was shaped by its position as England’s border country. Incursions from Scotland were always to be feared and to be guarded against, and already even before Roman times this placed a distinctive stamp upon the institutions and architecture of the region.


Labour Party Liberal Party Social Geography Market Town Lake County 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    See F. A. Gibson, A Compilation of Statistics of the Coal Mining Industry of the U.K. (Cardiff, 1922).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    J. W. House, North-Eastern England : Population Movements and the Landscape (Durham, 1959), p. 34.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    G. H. J. Daysh, West Cumberland (Whitehaven, 1938), p. 125.Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    Trade-union membership proportions from S. and B. Webb, History of Trade Unionism (1894), p. 413.Google Scholar
  5. 1.
    R. Page Arnot, The Miners, i (1949), 369–70.Google Scholar
  6. 2.
    P. S. Bagwell, The Railwaymen (1963), p. 136.Google Scholar
  7. 1.
    A. D. Hall, Pilgrimage of British Farming (1913), p. 125.Google Scholar
  8. 3.
    G. M. Trevelyan, English Social History (1944), p. 19.Google Scholar
  9. 3.
    H. D. Rawnsley, Harvey Goodwin, Bishop of Carlisle (1896), pp. 132–6, 145; but see also C. M. L. Bouch, Prelates and People of the Lake Counties (Kendal, 1948), p. 437.Google Scholar
  10. 2.
    J. Davison, Life of the Ven. William Clowes (1854), pp. 137–62; H. B. Kendall, History of the Primitive Methodist Church (1919), pp. 40–42.Google Scholar
  11. H. B. Kendall, History of the Primitive Methodist Church (1919), pp. 40–42Google Scholar
  12. 1.
    J. C. Atkinson, Forty Years in a Moorland Parish (1891), p. 15.Google Scholar
  13. 1.
    John, Viscount Morley, Recollections (1917), i, 184; Newcastle Daily Chronicle, 27 Aug. 1892.Google Scholar
  14. 1.
    For Burt’s life, see his Autobiography (1924) and also A. Watson, A Great Labour Leader (1908).Google Scholar
  15. 1.
    See G. W. Keeton, A Liberal Attorney-General (1949).Google Scholar
  16. 3.
    F. Bealey and H. Peiling, Labour and Politics, 1900–1906 (1958), pp. 220–1.Google Scholar
  17. 3.
    For the activities of the Pease family in Darlington see F. Whellan, History, Topography and Directory of Durham (1894), pp. 449–55.Google Scholar
  18. 1.
    See D. Lampe and L. Szenasi, The Self-Made Villain (1961).Google Scholar
  19. 3.
    See A. Briggs, Victorian Cities (1963), pp. 245 ff.; F. Bell, At the Works (1911).Google Scholar
  20. 4.
    For the two sides of the conflict see Keeton, pp. 75 ff.; J. Havelock Wilson, My Stormy Voyage through Life (1925), pp. 246–60.Google Scholar
  21. 3.
    See G. Topping and J. J. Potter, Memories of Old Carlisle (Carlisle, 1922).Google Scholar
  22. 1.
    G. M. Trevelyan, Grey of Falloden (1937), pp. 24, 66.Google Scholar
  23. 3.
    A. G. MacInnes, Recollections of the Life of Malcolm MacInnes (1911), pp. 121 ff.Google Scholar
  24. 1.
    J. Wilson, Memories of a Labour Leader (1920), p. 282.Google Scholar
  25. 4.
    L. A. Atherley-Jones, Looking Back (1925), pp. 19, 27.Google Scholar
  26. 2.
    Herbert, Viscount Samuel, Memoirs (1945), p. 38.Google Scholar
  27. 1.
    G. W. E. Russell, Sir Wilfrid Lawson, A Memoir (1909), p. 187.Google Scholar
  28. 4.
    In 1885 Lawson had both Parnellites and Orangemen against him: J. W. Robertson Scott, The Day Before Yesterday (1951), p. 48.Google Scholar
  29. 1.
    J. W. Lowther, Viscount Ullswater, A Speaker’s Commentaries (1925), p. 186.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Henry Pelling 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry Pelling
    • 1
  1. 1.St. John’s CollegeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations