In France these form a single system springing from the same eighteenth-century revolutionary and Napoleonic policies of national unification and administrative centralisation that inspired the founding of the Conseil d’État, the corps préfectoral and the Institut de France. Teachers are civil servants of the central Government, and their pupils’ entry to higher education (and so, generally speaking, to the managerial or technological cadres or to the liberal professions) depends on a pass in the public examination for the national school-leaving certificate, le baccalauréat, which is also organised and moderated by the Ministry of Education in Paris. The country is divided into twenty-three educational districts called académies, each headed by a Recteur appointed by the Minister of Education, and charged, as his representative, with administering all school and university education within his area. The Recteur d’Académie is also a kind of lay bishop, representing in his academic‘diocese’, alongside the ranged temporal powers of the corps préfectoral, conseillers généraux, conseillers municipaux, maires, députés et sénateurs, the precious principles of the Enlightenment: reason, humanity, liberty of conscience and freedom of inquiry.
KeywordsBurning Europe Flare Defend Abate
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