Monarchist Coup d’ État and Republican Fascism
The unending series of military debacles abroad and the increasingly heavy Allied aerial bombardment of the homeland led to profound defeatism among the Italian people. The breakdown of the transportation system and the economy, along with the obvious poor health of the Duce and his unwillingness to eliminate corruption in high places, all served to augment the nation’s despair. In February, 1943, Mussolini tried to stem some of the criticism by “changing the guard” in his Council of Ministers. Ciano was dismissed from the Foreign Office and sent as ambassador to the Holy See; already he was conspiring with certain party hierarchs to unseat his father-in-law. In March, 1943, a great wave of strikes broke out in Turin and Milan, the first to take place in Italy since the advent of the dictatorship. Communist infiltrators did their best to impart an antiwar and political aura to them.
KeywordsPenal Code Social Republic Life Imprisonment Italian Territory National Liberation
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