Advertisement

Some Nineteenth-Century Socialist Thinkers

  • Massimo Salvadori
Part of the The Documentary History of Western Civilization book series (DHWC)

Abstract

Two sets of conditions favored the development of thought along socialist lines in nineteenth-century Europe. Starting with the establishment in 1803 of a British-type factory at Liege in the Low Countries, industrialization spread eastward from its original home in Great Britain. This was the work of “capitalists,” owners and managers of capital. It made for rapid economic progress; it also brought with it the proletarianization of industrial wage-earners, urbanization, class antagonism, economic insecurity, what by the end of the century will be called the social problem. Following the defeat of Napoleonic despotism in 1814 and 1815 and the weakening of political authoritarianism through a succession of liberal and democratic revolutions, freedom of expression and of action increased in most of Europe. Even in Russia, shortly after the accession of Alexander II, censorship became lenient for a while. Capitalistic industrialization made for new problems; freedom of expression made it possible to discuss them, and political liberty made it possible to launch new movements.

Keywords

Productive Force Wage Labor Modern Industry Social Revolution Political Liberty 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Sources and Acknowledgments

  1. A New View of Society and Other Writings, Robert Owen (Every-man’s Library Text, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., London, and E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., New York 1949).Google Scholar
  2. Socialist Thought, edited by Albert Fried and Ronald Sanders (Doubleday & Company, Inc., New York 1964, and The University of Edinburgh Press, Edinburgh).Google Scholar
  3. Selections from the Works of Fourier, F.M.C. Fourier, trans. Julia Franklin (Swan Sonnenschein, London 1901).Google Scholar
  4. What is Property? An Inquiry into the Principle of Right and Government, P.-J. Proudhon, trans B. R. Tucker (Reeves, London).Google Scholar
  5. Communist Manifesto, K. Marx and F. Engels (F. Engels ed., authorized translation, London 1888).Google Scholar
  6. Engels on Capital, F. Engels (International Publishers, New York 1937).Google Scholar
  7. Socialism, Utopian and Scientific, F. Engels (Swan Sonnenschein, London 1892).Google Scholar
  8. The Political Philosophy of Bakunin: Scientific Anarchism, Mikhail A. Bakunin (G. P. Maximoff, ed., The Free Press of Glencoe, New York).Google Scholar
  9. Reflections on Violence, G. Sorel, trans. T. E. Hulme and J. Roth (Collier Books, New York 1961).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • Massimo Salvadori

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations