One of the most impressive manifestations of Europe’s expansive energy during the second half of the nineteenth century was a marked intensification of the imperial drive. There was still much unpreempted space in the world—Africa, for example, was predominantly terra incognita in 1870—hence ample room for all. The European Powers went abroad; not only Britain and France, whose imperial tradition had old roots, but Germany and Italy as well, not to mention the peculiar case of Belgium.1 There was relatively little coordinated plan in this expansion, even on the part of individual nations, let alone at the international level.
KeywordsCrystallization Europe Assure Egypt Congo
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