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Approaches to Change

  • David Butler
  • Donald Stokes

Abstract

The possibility of rulers Being constitutionally driven from office in a free election is relatively new in the history of government. The voters who now hold this power in the liberal democracies can, of course, exercise it only by selecting between alternatives that have been defined by competing leaders or groups. In Britain it is the political parties that provide the focus of choice. Indeed, in the longer historical view, parties antedate the mass electorate since it was they who enfranchised the voters and mobilized their support. But the public is not the creature of the parties, and the ebbs and flows of popular favor affect, often in quite unexpected ways, the whole conduct of British government.

Keywords

Party System Electoral Change Party Preference American Political Science Association Party Support 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    See W. Wilson, Congressional Government, Boston, 1885.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    The election of 1964 indeed exhibited a sectional pattern of alignment hauntingly like that of 1896, although the roles of the parties had been completely reversed. See W. D. Burnham, “American Voting Behavior and the 1964 Election,” Midwest Journal of Political Science, 12 (1968), 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 7.
    See, for example, A. Downs, An Economic Theory of Democracy, New York, 1957, pp. 114–41Google Scholar
  4. G. Tullock, Towards a Mathematics of Politics, Ann Arbor, 1967, 50–61Google Scholar
  5. O. Davis and M. Hinich, ‘A Mathematical Model of Policy Formation in a Democratic Society’, in J. L. Bernd, ed., Mathematical Applications in Political Science, II, Dallas, 1966, pp. 175–208.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    This trend is apparent in the closing chapters of A. Campbell, P. E. Converse, W. E. Miller and D. E. Stokes, The American Voter, New York, 1960, and even more clearly in Elections and the Political Order, New York, 1966, by the same authors.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    R. B. McCallum and A. Readman, The British General Election of 1945,Oxford, 1947Google Scholar
  8. H. G. Nicholas, The British General Election of 1950, London, 1951Google Scholar
  9. D. E. Butler, The British General Election of 1951, London, 1952Google Scholar
  10. D. E. Butler, The British General Election of 1955, London, 1955Google Scholar
  11. D. E. Butler and R. Rose, The British General Election of 1959, London, 1960Google Scholar
  12. D. E. Butler and A. King, The British General Election of 1964, London, 1965Google Scholar
  13. D. E. Butler and A. King, The British General Election of 1966, London, 1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. David Butler and Michael Pinto-Duschinsky, The British General Election of 1970, London, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© David Butler and Donald Stokes 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Butler
    • 1
  • Donald Stokes
    • 2
  1. 1.Nuffield CollegeOxfordUK
  2. 2.Center for Political StudiesUniversity of MichiganUSA

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