The Growth of Schools 1889–1898

  • W. A. C. Stewart


By definition the innovating schools were in protest, were asserting their differences, with theory and practice to support their claims. By definition they were enthusiasts who not only protested against something but also urged a positive alternative with conviction. But these schools urged different alternatives — some were for boys or girls only, others were co-educational: some were boarding schools, some day: some were based on religious convictions, some were firmly rationalist, some were neutral: some accepted a hierarchy of authority in the school, others rendered it minimal. I wish to describe the growth of schools to give historical context to this study of unorthodoxy in education. When we know which schools we have to consider we can see the principles and practices which distinguish them one from the other within the broad progressive category.


Public School Grammar School Radical School School Council Local Education Authority 
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  1. 2.
    For two accounts of this period of more than forty years see G. A. N. Lowndes, The Silent Social Revolution (Oxford, 1937), pp. 3–30, andGoogle Scholar
  2. Edmond Holmes, What Is and What Might Be (London, 1911). Holmes was Chief Inspector at the Board and the first part of his book written just after retirement was a condemnation of the Revised Code on moral, educational, and psychological grounds.Google Scholar
  3. See also C. Duke, ‘Robert Lowe — A Reappraisal’ in British Journal of Educational Studies, vol. xiv, no. i (Nov. 1965). pp. 19–195.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    For detailed references see E. C. Mack, Public Schools and British Opinion since 1860 (New York, 1940, pp. 11, 12, 14.Google Scholar
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    G. R. Parkin, Edward Thring (London, 1900), p. 146.Google Scholar
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    See C. Reddie, ‘The Relation of Abbotsholme to Bedales’, in The Abbotsbolmian, vol. ii, no. 3, July 1908, pp. 13–136.Google Scholar
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    One account of this development appears in J. H. Badley, Bedales: A Pioneer School (London. 1923), p. 69. Another account is in Memories and Reflections, p. 136.Google Scholar
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    A. S. Neill, ‘My Scholastic Life: 2’, in Id, Journal of the Summerhill Society, no. 3, Oct. 1960, p. 4.Google Scholar
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© W. A. C. Stewart 1968

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  • W. A. C. Stewart

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