As his 42nd birthday approached in the summer of 1834 even the morose Graham might feel some pleasure in his situation. He had confounded his critics by becoming a successful Minister; and if not personally popular, he was widely admired for his energy and ability. The Navy was reformed and, although impressment remained, seamen’s conditions had been improved. The Reform Act was operating safely, and Melbourne at the Home Office appeared willing and able to repress ‘dangerous’ Radical agitations. Even European peace seemed secure. Yet Graham was soon to break with his colleagues and re-examine his political philosophy.
KeywordsSecret Message Liberal Principle Municipal Institution Protestant Religion Perfect Freedom
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- 2.Torrens, op. cit., i. 315–21; Graham to Stanley, 18, 19, Stanley’s reply, 21 Nov. 1832; W. D. Jones, Lord Derby and Victorian Conservatism (Oxford, 1956), 36; Greville, op. cit., ii. 363–6; Anglesey, op. cit., 264–76.Google Scholar
- 4.Greville, op. cit., ii. 105, iii. 59–65; Graham to Grey, 13 Feb. 1834; Annual Register (1834), 17–18. Graham later told Stanley (18 Jan. 1835) that ‘that vote was the most painful one I ever gave, because it was in opposition to you …’Google Scholar
- 6.Greville, op. cit., iii. 88–93; W. J. Fitzpatrick, Correspondence of Daniel O’Connell (1888), i. 439; Brougham, op. cit., iii. 248; Lord Stanley, 1, Goodenough, 9 June 1834, to Graham.Google Scholar
- 7.Graham to Lord Stanley, 4, to Lord W. Bentinck, 12 June 1834; Parker, op. cit., i. 194 et seq.Google Scholar
- 9.Graham to H. Howard, 13 Dec. 1834, 2 Jan. 1835; address, 16 Dec.; Carlisle to Graham, 24 Dec. 1834; Lonsdale, op. cit., ii. 121–9; Torrens, op. cit., ii. 15–29; Speech of the Right Hon. Sir J. R. G. Graham, on being Nominated … at Carlisle, on Monday, January 12, 1835 (Carlisle, 1835), 3–17. Graham considerably changed his views on religious reform during the 1830s.Google Scholar
- 11.G. Kitson Clark, Peel and the Conservative Party (1964 ed.), 248–51Google Scholar
- D. W. J. Johnson, ‘Sir James Graham and the “Derby Dilly” ’ (University of Birmingham Historical Journal, iv. 1, 1953, 66–80).Google Scholar
- 14.Pari. Papers, 1836, viii.; see F. M. L. Thompson, English Landed Society in the Nineteenth Century (1963), 197, 233–5; Lonsdale, op. cit., ii. 135; Annual Register (1836), 223. Graham had also sat on the 1833 Committee (Pari. Papers, 1833, v.).Google Scholar