• J. T. Ward


The Crimean War, which Palmerston reluctantly ended by the Treaty of Paris in March 1856, resulted in a wide withdrawal of Russian claims. And at home it provided an impetus to Radical attacks on the ‘Establishment’. Dr. W. H. Russell’s horrifying reports on military sufferings in The Times provoked condemnation of upper-class staff officers’ ‘incompetence, lethargy, aristocratic hauteur, official indifference, favour, routine, perverseness and stupidity’. Cobden even regretted ‘the vote which changed Lord Derby’s Government … for it had cost the country a hundred millions of treasure and between thirty and forty thousand good lives’.1 But the Manchester pacifists gained little support; most Radicals supported the war, condemning only its shortage of triumphs. Palmerston, cynical and conservative in domestic affairs but still lively and popular at 72, seemed the man to win the war; and in the peace his magic appeal gave him a dominating position, which successive combinations of opponents failed to weaken.


Administrative Reform Competitive Entry Prince Consort Liberal Leadership Church Missionary Society 


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  1. 14.
    Michael Maclagan, Clemency Canning (1962), ch. 8Google Scholar
  2. G. E. Buckle, The Life of Benjamin Disraeli, iv. (1916), 127–33, 140–62Google Scholar
  3. Sir Philip Magnus, Gladstone, A Biography (1963 ed.), 132–4Google Scholar
  4. 19.
    Graham to Aberdeen, 2 Sept., to Gordon, 12 Dec. 1859 (Parker, Graham, ii. 392); M. F. Barbey, ‘From Carlisle to Silloth’ (The Railway Magazine, ci. 646, Feb. 1955, 92–96, 120); Torrens, op. cit., ii. 639–40; Graham to Gladstone, 18 Jan., to Russell, 7 March 1860; Herbert to Graham, 13 Nov. 1859, and 8, 12, 28 April, Graham to Herbert, 2, 4, 10, 14, 29 April 1860. See Stanmore, op. cit., ii. 208–69.Google Scholar
  5. 26.
    Torrens, op. cit., ii. 646–53, 655–6; Graham to Peel, 1 Jan. 1842; R. B. McDowell, The Irish Administration, 1801–1914 (1964), 281. Graham’s brother George was his private secretary at the Admiralty and Home Office and in 1842 became Registrar—General, on Graham’s nomination (Parker, Graham, ii. 440; Roberts, op. cit., 163).Google Scholar
  6. 29.
    Alexander Somerville, The Autobiography of a Working Man (ed. John Carswell; 1951Google Scholar
  7. Journ. R. Agric. Soc., i. (1839). Graham maintained that ‘skill in agriculture does not so much consist in the discovery of principles of universal application, as in the adaptation of acknowledged principles to local circumstances’.Google Scholar
  8. 30.
    The Times, 26 Oct. 1861, 11 May 1937 [G. M. Young, Victorian Studies (1962), 15]; Parker, Graham, ii. 444; Morley to Sir W. Lawson, 24 Aug. 1899 (ibid., 435); Graham to Phipps, 20 April 1855 (ibid., 436).Google Scholar
  9. 31.
    Parker, Graham, ii. ch. 20; H. W. C. Davis, The Age of Grey and Peel (Oxford, 1964 reprint), 241–2; see Mandell Creighton’s notice in The Dictionary of National Biography, viii. (1908), 328–32.Google Scholar

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© J. T. Ward 1967

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