The Netherlands in the European Scene, 1813–1913

  • J. C. Boogman


MY starting-point is the memorable year 1813, when the Dutch shook off the French yoke. If that glorious event may be called a revolution, one should immediately add that it turned out to be a rather second-rate one, decidedly not conspicuous for large-scale heroism or revolutionary fervour. For its success, conditioned of course by the allied victory over Napoleon, should be credited before all others one great man, the former regent Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp. This man wished to prevent the allied conquest of his country because it might have resulted in the treatment of the Netherlands as an occupied territory.


Foreign Policy Diplomatic Relation Commercial Relation Grand Duchy Dutch State 
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Further Reading

1. Collections of Documents

  1. Gedenkstukken der algemeene geschiedenis van Nederland, ed. H. T. Colenbrander (The Hague, 1905–22)Google Scholar
  2. Bescheiden betreffende de buitenlandse politiek van Nederland 1848–1919, 2nd period: 1871–98, ed. J. Woltring (The Hague, 1962–5)Google Scholar
  3. Bescheiden betreffende de buitenlandse politiek van Nederland 1848–1919, 3rd period: 1899–1919, ed. C. Smit (The Hague, 1957–64)Google Scholar
  4. Documenten betreffende de buitenlandse handelspolitiek van Nederland in de negentiende eeuw, ed. N. W. Posthumus, 6 vols (The Hague, 1919–1931)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Tusschenwateren, 1839–1867, ed. C. Gerretson (Haarlem, n.d.), brings together official documentary material on the influence on Dutch-Belgian relations of the semi-maritime waters in the province of Zeeland (East and West Scheldt).Google Scholar
  6. Santan, C. W. van: Het internationale recht in Nederlands buitenlands beleid. Een onderzoek in het archief van het Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken 1840–1850 (The Hague, 1955) shows how the Dutch government applied international law in foreign affairs. Many original documents are printed in interesting chapters on (e.g.) Dutch diplomatic institutions and relations; English introductions to each chapter and translations of all tables of contents.Google Scholar

2. Secondary Works

  1. Boogman, J. C.: Nederland en de Duitse Bond, 1815–1851, 2 vols (Groningen-Djakarta, 1955; Historische studies uitgegeven vanwege het Instituut voor Geschiedenis der Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, v). A study of the diplomatic relations between the Netherlands and the German Confederation, with attention to internal politics in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium.Google Scholar
  2. Boogman, J. C.:‘Background and general tendencies of the foreign policies of the Netherlands and Belgium in the middle of the 19th century’, Acta Historiae Neerlandica, I (Leiden, 1966) 132 ff., analyses the social, economic, psychological and political background of the foreign policy of the Netherlands as well as of Belgium in the 1850s and 1860s.Google Scholar
  3. Boogman, J. C.: ‘Enkele aspecten van het Nederlandse natie-besef in historisch perspectief’, Oost-West, V (1966) 75 ff. A study of the characteristic Dutch attitude towards foreign policy, regarded as an interesting aspect of Dutch national feeling.Google Scholar
  4. Cantillon, E.: ‘Thorbecke en Europa’, De Gids, CVIII (1944–5). An account of the uniquely active European policy of the Thorbecke government in the early 1850s.Google Scholar
  5. Dongen, F. van: Tussen neutraliteit en imperialisme. De Nederlands-Chinese betrekkingen van 1863 tot 1901 (Groningen, 1966). This thorough account of Sino-Dutch political and economic relations also considers the question how far traditional Dutch neutrality in Europe was applied to China; an informative summary in English is added.Google Scholar
  6. Duparc, F. J.: Willem II, België en Luxemburg (The Hague, 1933). Rather superficial, but virtually the only work which deals explicitly with King William’s policy towards Belgium and Luxemburg.Google Scholar
  7. Goedemans, A. J. M.: Indië in de branding, een diplomatiek steekspel, 1840–1843 (Utrecht, 1953) A valuable account of Anglo-Dutch tensions over the Dutch East Indies in the 1840s.Google Scholar
  8. Haar, C. C. ter: Nederland en Vlaanderen. Een onderzoek naar de houding der Nederlanders tegenover het Vlaamsche vraagstuk, 1830–1873 (Santpoort, 1933) illustrates the restricted character of Dutch-Flemish cultural relations in 1810–73.Google Scholar
  9. Hamstra, J.: De Luxemburgsche kwestie (Groningen, 1927). Somewhat superficial, especially in its unsatisfactory interpretation of Bismarck, but indispensable.Google Scholar
  10. Huisman, M.: ‘Le problièrme de la sécarité de la Belgique et des Pays-Bas à l’avenement du Second Empire’, Revue de l’Université de Bruxelles, XXXIIII (April 1928) 257 ff., shows how Dutch-Belgian diplomatic co-operation resulted from the French expansionist danger at the beginning of the 1850s.Google Scholar
  11. Huisman, M.: ‘La crise révolutionnaire de 1848 et le rapprochement Hollando-Belge’, Bijdragen voor de Vaderlandsche Geschiedenis en Oudheidkunde, seventh ser., III-IV (1935) The story of the sudden improvement in official relations between the Netherlands and Belgium because of the revolutionary situation in 1848.Google Scholar
  12. Jong, T. P. M. de: De krimpende horizon van de Hollandse kooplieden: Hollands welvaren in het Caribisch zeegebied, 1790–1830 (Assen, 1966) shows how the defeatist mentality of Dutch merchants damaged the commercial position of the Netherlands in the Caribbean; interesting English summary.Google Scholar
  13. Kossmann, E. H.: In Praise of the Dutch Republic: Some Seventeenth-Century Attitudes (1963). An Inaugural Lecture at University College, London, in which an aspect of the characteristic Dutch approach to international affairs is traced back to the seventeenth century.Google Scholar
  14. Leeuw, A. S. de: Nederland in de wereldpolitiek van 1900 tot heden (Zeist, 1936) covers 1895–1930, with an interesting chapter on certain Dutch pro-German sympathies shortly before the First World War.Google Scholar
  15. Renier, G. J.: Great Britain and the Establishment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, 1813–1815: a Study in British Foreign Policy (The Hague, 1930) looks at some Dutch attitudes as well as at British policy.Google Scholar
  16. Smit, C.: De handelspolitieke betrekkingen tusschen Nederland en Frankrijk, 1814–1914 (The Hague, 1923). The story of Franco-Dutch commercial relations 1814–1914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Smit, C.: De conferentie van Londen. Het vredesverdrag tussen Nederland en Belgie van 19 april 1839 (Leiden, 1949) surveys international relations, Dutch-Belgian tensions, and the different stages of the London negotiations, with an analysis of the ultimate Treaty of London.Google Scholar
  18. Smit, C.: Diplomatieke geschiedenis van Nederland, inzonderheid sedert de vestiging van het Koninkrijk (The Hague, 1950). A general study of Dutch diplomatic relations since 1813, using a rather old-fashioned approach to diplomatic history.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Smit, C.: Hoogtij der neutraliteitspolitiek. De buitenlandse politiek van Nederland, 1899–1919 (Leiden, 1959). An account of the foreign policy of the Netherlands as a neutral power, from the first Peace Conference at The Hague.Google Scholar
  20. Vandenbosch, A.: Dutch Foreign Policy since 1815: a Study in Small Power Politics (The Hague, 1949) is mainly based on materials for the first half of the twentieth century.Google Scholar
  21. Vries A. de: Geschiedenis van de handelspolitieke betrekkingen tusschen Nederland en Engeland in de negentiende eeuw, 1814–1872 (The Hague, 1931). A history of commercial relations between the Netherlands and France.Google Scholar
  22. Vries, J. de: ‘De problematiek der Duits-Nederlandse economische betrekkingen in de negentiende eeuw’, Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, LXXVIII (1965) 23ff. A valuable study of the many aspects of Dutch-German economic relations in the nineteenth century.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Boogman
    • 1
  1. 1.RijksuniversiteitUtrechtThe Netherland

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