Emergence of an Afro-Carnival Agency

  • Niyi Afolabi
Part of the African Histories and Modernities book series (AHAM)


The previous chapter laid out the transnational nature of the Ilê Aiyê organization by drawing connections between the Unified Black Movement in Brazil and the civil rights movement in the United States while highlighting the politics of negotiation and resistance that constitutes its cultural framework. This chapter invokes the local racialized context in which the organization was founded in 1974 and the need for a “cultural agency” through which it calibrates its mission as a cultural producer, educator, and political agitator for racial equality.


Racial Discrimination Racial Equality Police Brutality Brazilian Context Racial Problem 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 7.
    Christopher Dunn, “Afro-Bahian Carnival: A Stage for Protest,” Afro-Hispanic Review 11, no. 1–3 (1992): 15.Google Scholar
  2. 9.
    Jônatas C. da Silva, “História de Lutas Negras: Memórias do Surgimento do Movimento Negro na Bahia,” Escravidão e Invenção da Liberdade, ed. João José Reis (São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1998), 279.Google Scholar
  3. 10.
    Antônio Risério, Carnaval Ijexá (Salvador: Corrupio, 1981), 45.Google Scholar
  4. 11.
    Antônio Risério, “The Colors of Change,” in Black Brazil: Culture, Identity, and Social Mobilization, ed. Larry Crook and Randal Johnson (Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, 1999), 250–52.Google Scholar
  5. 13.
    David Covin, The Unified Black Movement in Brazil, 1978–2002 (Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland, 2006), 206.Google Scholar
  6. For additional insights into the role of culture in the MNU, see also David Covin, “The Role of Culture in Brazil’s Unified Black Movement, Bahia in 1992,” Journal of Black Studies 27, no. 1 (1996): 39–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 14.
    These include among many others, Michael Hanchard, Orpheus and Power: The Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, 1945–1988 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994);Google Scholar
  8. Kim Butler, Freedoms Given, Freedoms Won: Afro-Brazilians in Post-Abolition São Paulo and Salvador (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1998);Google Scholar
  9. David Covin, Unified Black Movement in Brazil; and Edward Telles, Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006). From the Brazilian perspective, a most compelling and problematic work is byGoogle Scholar
  10. Antônio Risério, A Utopia Brasileira e os Movimentos Negros (São Paulo: Editora 34, 2007).Google Scholar
  11. 33.
    Walter Altino de Sousa Jr., O Il ê Aiy ê e a Relação com o Estado: Interfaces e Ambigüidades entre Poder e Cultura na Bahia. Salvador: Fast Design, 2007Google Scholar
  12. 34.
    Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, eds., Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1982);Google Scholar
  13. Pierre Bourdieu, “The School as a Conservative Force: Scholastic and Cultural Inequalities,” in Contemporary Research in the Sociology of Education, ed. James Eggleston (London: Methuen, 1974), 32–46; Ris é rio, Carnaval Ijexá. Google Scholar
  14. 35.
    Among these stars, the female ones have been particularly successful—especially Daniela Mercury, Ivete Sangalo, and Margareth Menezes. For a more detailed analysis of these megastars, see Marilda Santanna, As Donas do Canto: O Sucesso das Estrelas-Int érpretes no Carnaval de Salvador. Salvador: EDUFBA, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Niyi Afolabi 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niyi Afolabi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations